This isn't a racist statement or anything of the sort, but of course you can. All humans ave the same basic anatomy, skeletal structure, etc. but even though we all do have the same basic make up we can see and test differences. Some races are more susceptible to certain diseases than others. Our bodies have adopted to help us in the places we live, in example the Nordic people usually have some more weight, and medium height to conserve heat, and are whiter due to the amount of sun. Africans are usually skinnier and taller to compensate for the heat, and their skin is usually darker to help with the sun. These are just 2 small examples, if you look and read up on bone structures you can also see that they have differences. How do you think scientist and such can tell the race and sex of a dead person from the bones?
While not 100% accurate by any means, DNA tests can identify common traits among different racial populations.
For example, the "Asian glow" is caused from a variant in the genes responsible for metabolizing alcohol. While it is not a solely a gene variant found in Asian populations it is certainly more prevalent. If a DNA test found a this gene variant in a blood sample, probability would say that the individual is likely to be of Asian descent. When you put enough of these distinctive gene markers together, science can identify different racial based on their DNA profiles.
Now, I'm sure someone will reply, "But the scientist would be playing a game of probability, and there is no definitive way to identify a race. There is no "Black gene", "White gene", or "Asian gene"". And that is absolutely correct, but we also have to understand that most DNA assays are not 100% positive either. Those DNA profiles they use to convict criminals? Depending on the type of test that is used, a chance of two profiles matching can range from between 1/1 Billion to 1/100 Billion. No matter how stringent a test is, at the end of the day we choose take the results of these tests as truth because we accept the probabilities.
I believe races can be identified scientifically. Our advances in modern science allow us to do anything we darn well please. A simple DNA test can tell the type of race a person is. But I also believe that if it is not possible now that it could very well be possible in the future.
There are studies that suggest that the white race doesn't trace back farther than 6,000 years. "Dr. Jonathan Pritchard estimates that the point in time when the genes of the Asian and European populations were altered was 6,600 years ago" This suggests that there was a mutation that produced lighter skin and blue eyes. Thus this creates a race. The caucasian and asian race. Other than those two, there are technically no other races because they are original to this planet and didn't initially have naturally these mutations. This is proven through the fact that blue eyes are recessive etc. This theory is also proven through the fact that everyones origins are from Africa and Black People. Now the mutation is still up for debate, but evidence shows that it is likely that it happened.
No, I do not believe that races can be identified scientifically. When a human body is dissected there is no difference between races; all organs are the same, save the male and female differences. There are physical features such as facial bone structures that may make us unique in different races or groups, but anatomy is all the same. There is only one human kind.