If they want to say deaf then let them be but if not surgery would be a much better option because it is not immediately apparent to people who don't know them that they were once deaf and it prevents people from unintentionally stereotyping them before they get to know them.
Yes, deafness should be treated with surgery, rather than hearing aids, because it can provide a more permanent solution. Also, hearing aids can sometimes make a student feel less like a part of the group. It might lead them to be picked on. Surgery can help a person hear for the rest of their lives.
This, of course, is up to the individual but surgery to fix hearing loss is a great option. The proper safety measures need to be taken but I can't think of one reason not to have this option. Even as hearing aids are miniaturized and made easier to handle, I can only see them as a constant pain.
Deafness should be treated with surgery instead of hearing aids. This is because of the fact that surgery has proven to be far more useful and helpful in providing a solution for deafness than hearing aids. Hearing aids have been shown to almost never work, whereas surgery has proven to work time and time again.
If it is possible to treat every case of deafness with surgery, this is how it should be done. I think the constant production of hearing aids is too costly and probably annoying to the person wearing them after a while. If the surgeries are safe, that's the way to go.