During the summer, there is usually a big harvest, therefore, children were needed at home to help their parents, so summer break was born. In urban areas, they cant go to school while other kids don't, it would be unfair, and it would have the nations GPA average off. So the whole nation adopted this system.
9-month schooling is a function of farm-culture. This is because of the fact that in the past, people would have a large harvest season, and would require their children to help around the farm during the summer to help with the farm. School being let out during the summer was helpful for this.
The farm culture and needing the extra hands in summer months, or in some states fall months, definitely started the tradition o 9-month schooling. It's too ingrained in our culture now to go year round. It gives kids a chance to relax and reflect on what they have learned. It also gives teachers, administration, and janitorial crews the chance to get prepped once a year without the stress of kids being around too!
I believe that originally, 9 month school was the product of farm culture. Children were needed at home during the important growing season and to begin harvesting the crops. I also think that school was out of session because it was hard to keep the children cool during the hottest part of the year.
I do think that 9-month schooling did start out as a function of farm-culture. This way the children could be home to help out during growing season. I feel that this is not as relevant in this day and age, but it doesn't mean that it needs to be changed.
Most Children don't live on farms today. Originally 9 month school was created so that children could help on the farms, but more and more cities are forming leaving farming children out of the question of year round school. We also have machines to help farm now so why use children?
9 month schooling is not a function of farm culture. It is used everywhere in the United States, and not just the areas that farm. There is also no reason to change this, as kids do deserve a break every year so they can recharge and spend time having fun.
The current and most common school schedule used in public schools today is not a hold over from farm-culture or agriculture. If you think about this schedule you will see that it is not at all convenient to the farming culture because crops are planted in the early spring and harvested in the late fall.
9 month schooling happens in many cultures whether they are a culture of farming or not. School during the hottest months used to be impractical. The schools lacked air conditioning and the heat made it difficult to focus on the lessons being taught. Many schools now have air-conditioning which make summer classes more practical.