Favorite extinct megafauna?

Posted by: PetersSmith

Imagine if all of these were still around. It's like "ah, gorilla man".

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9 Total Votes
1

Dire wolf

The dire wolf is an extinct carnivorous mammal of the genus Canis, roughly the size of the extant gray wolf, but with a heavier build. It evolved in North America and later moved into South America. Canis dirus is assigned to the Rancholabrean land ... mammal age of North America and was among the many large carnivores and megaherbivores that became extinct in North and South America near the end of the Pleistocene epoch. Salamander Cave in the Black Hills of South Dakota has produced the currently recognized oldest known record of the dire wolf. The site preserves a fauna approximately 252,000 years old, based on uranium-series dating. Its ending is associated with the Quaternary extinction event   more
2 votes
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2

Spinosaurus

Spinosaurus is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to lower Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 97 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains disco... vered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. Aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species S. Maroccanus has been recovered from Morocco.Spinosaurus may be the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, possibly larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Estimates published in 2005 and 2007 suggest that it was 12.6 to 18 metres in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes in weight. The skull of Spinosaurus was long and narrow like that of a modern crocodilian. Spinosaurus is known to have eaten fish; evidence suggests that it lived both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian   more
2 votes
1 comment
3

Steppe mammoth

The steppe mammoth is an extinct species of Elephantidae that ranged over most of northern Eurasia during the Middle Pleistocene, 600,000-370,000 years ago. It probably evolved in Siberia during the early Pleistocene from Mammuthus meridionalis. It ... was the first stage in the evolution of the steppe and tundra elephants and an ancestor of the woolly mammoth of later glacial periods   more
1 vote
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4

American lion

The American lion – also known as the North American lion, Naegele’s giant jaguar or American cave lion – is an extinct lion of the family Felidae, endemic to North America and northwestern South America during the Pleistocene epoch, existing for ab... out 0.33 million years. It has been shown by genetic analysis to be a sister lineage to the Eurasian cave lion.The American lion is one of the largest types of cat ever to have existed, slightly larger than the early Middle Pleistocene primitive cave lion, P. Leo fossilis and about 25% larger than the modern African lion   more
1 vote
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5

Dreadnoughtus

Dreadnoughtus is a genus of giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur discovered in the Upper Cretaceous Cerro Fortaleza Formation of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. It is one of the largest of all known terrestrial vertebrates, possessing the greatest ... mass of any land animal that can be calculated with reasonable certainty, using limb bone measurements. In terms of skeletal completeness and ability to encode its anatomy into cladistic analyses, Dreadnoughtus schrani is the most complete gigantic titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur   more
1 vote
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6

Chalicotherium

Chalicotherium is a genus of extinct browsing odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla and family Chalicotheriidae, found in Europe, Africa, and Asia during the Late Oligocene to Lower Pliocene, living from 28.4—3.6 mya, existing for approxima... tely 24.8 million years.This animal would look much like other chalicotheriid species: an odd-looking herbivore with long clawed forelimbs and stouter weight bearing hindlimbs.The type species, Chalicotherium goldfussi, from Miocene and Pliocene Europe, was described by Johann Jakob Kaup in 1833 and since then 7 other species have been confidently assigned to this genus. According to current phylogenetic analyses Chalicotherium has two daughter genera nested within it, Anisodon Lartet, 1851 and Nestoritherium J. J. Kaup, 1859, thus rendering it paraphyletic   more
1 vote
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7

Tyrannosaurus

Tyrannosaurus rex meaning "king" in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T.Rex, is one of the most well-represented of the large theropods. Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is now western North America, which then was an island continent named Laramid... ia. Tyrannosaurus had a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the Maastrichtian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, 68 to 66 million years ago. It was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to its large and powerful hind limbs, Tyrannosaurus fore limbs were short but unusually powerful for their size and had two clawed digits. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators. In fact, the most complete specimen measures up to 12.3 m (40 ft) in length, up to 4 metres (13 ft) tall at the hips, and up to 6.8 metric tons (7.5 short tons) in weight   more
1 vote
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8

Protoceras

Protoceras is an extinct genus of Artiodactyla, of the family Protoceratidae, endemic to North America from the Oligocene through Miocene 33.9—20.6 Ma, existing for approximately 13.3 million years.
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9

Anteosaurus

Anteosaurus is the name given to an extinct genus of large carnivorous synapsid. It lived during the Capitanian epoch of the Middle Permian in what is now South Africa. They became extinct by the middle Late Permian.
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10

Elaltitan

Elaltitan is an extinct genus of large lithostrotian titanosaur sauropod known from the Late Cretaceous of Chubut Province, southern Argentina. It contains a single species, Elaltitan lilloi.
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11

Argentinosaurus

Argentinosaurus is a genus of titanosaur sauropod dinosaur first discovered by Guillermo Heredia in Argentina. The generic name refers to the country in which it was discovered. The dinosaur lived on the then-island continent of South America somewh... ere between 97 and 94 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous Epoch. It is among the largest known dinosaurs   more
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12

Aepycamelus

Aepycamelus is an extinct genus of camelid, formerly called Alticamelus, which lived during the Miocene 20.6–4.9 Ma existing for approximately 15.7 million years. Its name is derived from the Homeric Greek αἰπύς, "high and steep" and κάμελος – "came... l"; thus, "high camel"; alticamelus in Latin.Aepycamelus walked on its toes only. Unlike earlier species of camelid, they possessed cushioned pads like those of modern camels   more
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13

Agriotherium

Agriotherium is an extinct genus of Ursidae of the Miocene through Pleistocene epochs, with fossils found in Neogene strata of North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, living from ~13.6–2.5 Ma, existing for approximately 11.1 million years.
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14

Eurhinodelphis

Eurhinodelphis is an extinct genus of Miocene cetacean. Its fossils have been found in France, Belgium, Maryland and California.
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15

Palorchestes

Palorchestes is an extinct genus of terrestrial herbivorous marsupial of the family Palorchestidae. The genus was endemic to Australia, living from the Late Miocene subepoch through the Pleistocene epoch, and thought to be in existence for approxima... tely 11.59 million years   more
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16

Coryphodon

Coryphodon is an extinct genus of mammal.Coryphodon was a pantodont, a member of the world's first group of large browsing mammals. It migrated across what is now northern North America, replacing Barylambda, an earlier pantodont. It is regarded as ... the ancestor of the genus Hypercoryphodon of Mid Eocene Mongolia.Coryphodon is known from many specimens in North America and considerably fewer in Europe, Mongolia, and China. It is a small to medium-sized coryphodontid who differs from other members of the family in dental characteristics   more
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17

Diprotodon

Diprotodon, meaning "two forward teeth", is the largest known marsupial ever to have lived. Along with many other members of a group of unusual species collectively called the "Australian megafauna", it existed from approximately 1.6 million years a... go until extinction some 46,000 years ago.Diprotodon species fossils have been found in sites across mainland Australia, including complete skulls and skeletons, as well as hair and foot impressions. Female skeletons have been found with babies located where the mother's pouch would have been. The largest specimens were hippopotamus-sized: about 3 metres from nose to tail, standing 2 metres tall at the shoulder and weighing about 2,800 kilograms. Aboriginal rock art images in Quinkan traditional country have been claimed to depict diprotodonts. They inhabited open forest, woodlands, and grasslands, possibly staying close to water, and eating leaves, shrubs, and some grasses.The closest surviving relatives of Diprotodon are the wombats and the koala. It is suggested that diprotodonts may have been an inspiration for the legends of the bunyip, as some Aboriginal tribes identify Diprotodon bones as those of "bunyips"   more
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18

Eremotherium

Eremotherium is an extinct genus of ground sloth of the family Megatheriidae, endemic to North America and South America during the Pleistocene epoch. It lived from 4.9 mya—11,000 years ago existing for approximately 4.889 million years.E. Rusconi r... eached a length up to 6 m and a weight of more than 3 tons   more
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19

Eurotamandua

Eurotamandua is an extinct genus of mammal that lived some 49 million years ago, during the early Eocene.A single fossil is known, coming from the Messel Pit in southwestern Germany. It was about 90 cm long. It is often classified as a pangolin. Whe... n it was first discovered, it was originally thought to be an anteater, as it lacked the characteristic fused-hair scales of other pangolins. Eurotamandua's placement within the pangolins was made primarily because of a lack of the characteristic "xenarthran" joints found in all xenarthrans such as tamanduas. Eurotamandua may still be a stem xenarthran, but likely belongs to another group entirely, the Afredentata. While a distinct taxon, it is possible that Eomanis krebsi is also not a pangolin and belongs to this same group   more
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20

Desmostylus

Desmostylus is an extinct genus of herbivorous mammal of the family Desmostylidae living from the Chattian stage of the Late Oligocene subepoch through the Late Miocene subepoch and in existence for approximately 21.2 million years.
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21

Moropus

Moropus is an extinct genus of perissodactyl mammal that belonged to the group called chalicotheres, which were endemic to North America during the Miocene from ~23.0—13.6 Mya, existing for approximately 9.4 million years.Moropus is related to the m... odern horse, rhino, and tapir   more
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22

Entelodon

Entelodon, is an extinct genus of entelodont artiodactyl endemic to Eurasia. Fossils of species are found in Paleogene strata ranging in age from the Houldjinian until the early Oligocene.
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23

Hyracodon

Hyracodon is an extinct genus of mammal.It was a lightly built, pony-like mammal of about 1.5 m long. Hyracodon's skull was large in comparison to the rest of the body. Hyracodon's dentition resembled that of later rhinoceroses, but it was a much sm... aller animal and differed very little in appearance from the primitive horses of which it was a contemporary. It had a short, broad snout and its long, slender limbs had three digits.Like the primitive horses, hyracodonts inhabited open forests and wooded steppes and turned from browsing foliage to grazing grass. They died out without leaving any descendants and they mark the end of the phylogenetic branch of hornless, running rhinoceroses.This small, fast-running creature was a close relative of the largest land mammal that ever lived, the 8 m long Paraceratherium   more
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24

Paraceratherium

Paraceratherium is an extinct genus of hornless rhinoceros, and the largest terrestrial mammal that has ever existed. It lived from the early to late Oligocene epoch; its remains have been found across Eurasia between China and the former Yugoslavia... . Paraceratherium is classified as a member of the hyracodont subfamily Indricotheriinae. Paraceratherium means "near the hornless beast", in reference to Aceratherium, a genus that was once thought similar.The exact size of Paraceratherium is unknown because of the incompleteness of the fossils. Its weight is estimated to have been 15 to 20 tonnes at most; the shoulder height was about 6 metres, and the length about 8 metres. The legs were long and pillar-like. The long neck supported a skull that was about 1.3 metres long. It had large, tusk-like incisors and a nasal incision that suggests it had a prehensile upper lip or proboscis. The lifestyle of Paraceratherium may have been similar to that of modern large mammals such as the elephants and extant rhinoceroses. Because of its size, it would have had few predators and a slow rate of reproduction. Paraceratherium was a browser, eating mainly leaves, soft plants, and shrubs   more
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25

Woolly rhinoceros

The woolly rhinoceros is an extinct species of rhinoceros that was common throughout Europe and northern Asia during the Pleistocene epoch and survived the last glacial period. The genus name Coelodonta means "cavity tooth". The woolly rhinoceros wa... s a member of the Pleistocene megafauna   more
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26

Megatherium

Megatherium was a genus of elephant-sized ground sloths endemic to South America that lived from the late Pliocene through the end of the Pleistocene. Its size was exceeded by only a few other land mammals, including mammoths and Paraceratherium.
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27

Merycoidodon

Merycoidodon is an extinct genus of terrestrial herbivore of the family Merycoidodontidae, subfamily Merycoidodontinae, more popularly known by the name Oreodon endemic to North America during the Late Eocene-Early Miocene subepochs existing for app... roximately 21.7 million years   more
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28

Megaloceros

Megaloceros is an extinct genus of deer whose members lived throughout Eurasia from the late Pliocene to the Late Pleistocene and were important herbivores during the Ice Ages. The largest species, Megaloceros giganteus, vernacularly known as the "I... rish Elk" or "Giant elk", is also the best known.Most members of the genus were extremely large animals that favoured meadows or open woodlands, with most species averaging slightly below 2 metres at the withers. Many of the Mediterranean species, on the other hand, were textbook examples of insular dwarfism, such as the Sardinian M. Cazioti, which was barely 1 metre tall. The various species of the Cretan genus Candiacervus – the smallest of which, C. Rhopalophorus was just 65 cm high at the shoulder – are sometimes included in Megaloceros as a subgenus.As the name "Irish Elk" implies, the larger species were somewhat similar in general habitus to the European Elk and the American Elk. However, this has by now been shown to be a consequence of their increased size   more
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29

Megalonyx

Megalonyx is an extinct genus of giant ground sloths of the family Megalonychidae endemic to North America from the Hemphillian of the Late Miocene through to the Rancholabrean of the Pleistocene, living from ~10.3 Mya—11,000 years ago, existing for...  approximately 10.289 million years. Type species, M. Jeffersonii, measured about 3 m and weighted up to 1 ton   more
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30

Metamynodon

Metamynodon is an extinct genus of amynodont perissodactyls whose known species lived in North America during the early Oligocene, although the questionable inclusion of M. Mckinneyi could extend their range back in time, to the Middle Eocene.They w... ere large, displaying a suit of semiaquatic adaptations similar to those of modern hippos despite their closer affinities with rhinoceroses   more
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31

Macrauchenia

Macrauchenia was a long-necked and long-limbed, three-toed South American ungulate mammal, typifying the order Litopterna. The oldest fossils date back to around 7 million years ago, and M. Patachonica disappears from the fossil record during the la... te Pleistocene, around 20,000-10,000 years ago. M. Patachonica was the best known member of the family Macraucheniidae, and is known only from fossil finds in South America, primarily from the Lujan Formation in Argentina. The original specimen was discovered by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle. In life, Macrauchenia resembled a humpless camel with a short trunk, though it is not closely related to either camels or proboscideans   more
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32

Deinogalerix

Deinogalerix, was a genus of the order Erinaceomorpha, which lived in Italy in the Late Miocene. The genus was apparently endemic to what was then Gargano Island, today's Gargano peninsula. The Deinogalerix remains were first described in 1972.The g... enus belonged to the subfamily of gymnures or moon-rats, which are not rats at all, but rather hairy, superficially rat-like relatives of the hedgehog lacking quills. Deinogalerix had a long, thin, conical face, small pointed ears, a lengthy, tapering tail and long hairs.Deinogalerix koenigswaldi's skull was 20 cm long, and the entire body measured 60 cm. It occupied the same ecological niche as dogs and cats today, except that it had more predators itself - such as the enormous barn owl Tyto gigantea.It is believed that the species of Deinogalerix were insectivores, mostly feeding off invertebrates like beetles, dragonflies and crickets, and possibly even snails. But the larger species may also have hunted small mammals, reptiles and birds.In the Late Miocene subepoch, what is at present Italy was mainly a group of small islands and only at a later date did majority of these join with the mainland   more
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33

Elasmotherium

Elasmotherium is an extinct genus of giant rhinoceros endemic to Eurasia during the Late Pliocene through the Pleistocene, documented from 2.6 Ma to as late as 50,000 years ago, possibly later, in the Late Pleistocene, an approximate span of slightl... y less than 2.6 million years. Three species are recognised. The best known, E. Sibiricum was the size of a mammoth and is thought to have borne a large, thick horn on its forehead which was used for defense, attracting mates, driving away competitors, sweeping snow from the grass in winter and digging for water and plant roots. Like all rhinoceroses, elasmotheres were herbivorous. Unlike any others, its high-crowned molars were ever-growing. Its legs were longer than those of other rhinos and were adapted for galloping, giving it a horse-like gait   more
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34

Peltephilus

Peltephilus ferox, the horned armadillo, was a species of dog-sized, armadillo-like xenarthran mammal which first inhabited Argentina during the Oligocene epoch, and became extinct in the Miocene epoch. Notably, the scutes on its head were so develo... ped that they formed horns protecting its eyes. Aside from the horned gophers of North America, it is the only known fossorial horned mammal.Although it had traditionally been perceived as a carnivore because of its large, triangular-shaped teeth, Vizcaino and Farina argued in 1997 that Peltephilus was a herbivore   more
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35

Glyptodon

Glyptodon was a large, armored mammal of the family Glyptodontidae, a relative of armadillos that lived during the Pleistocene epoch. It was roughly the same size and weight as a Volkswagen Beetle, though flatter in shape. With its rounded, bony she... ll and squat limbs, it superficially resembled turtles, and the much earlier dinosaurian ankylosaur, as an example of the convergent evolution of unrelated lineages into similar forms. Glyptodon is believed to have been a herbivore, grazing on grasses and other plants found near rivers and small bodies of water   more
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36

Daeodon

Daeodon is an extinct genus of entelodont artiodactyl that inhabited North America between 29 to 19 million years ago during the late Oligocene and early Miocene epochs. The type species is Daeodon shoshonensis, the last and largest of the entelodon... ts, known adults of this species possess skulls about 90 cm in length. It had a broad distribution across the United States but it was never abundant   more
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37

Giant Short-Faced Bear

The short-faced bear is an extinct bear that inhabited North America during the Pleistocene epoch from about 1.8 Mya until 11,000 years ago. It was the most common early North American bear and was most abundant in California. There are two recogniz... ed species: Arctodus pristinus and Arctodus simus, with the latter considered one of the largest known terrestrial mammalian carnivores   more
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38

Eobasileus

Eobasileus cornutus is an extinct species of dinocerate mammal.Eobasileus was 4 metres long and stood 2.1 metres tall at the shoulder; and with a weight up to 4000 kg it was the largest Uintathere. It looked very similar to the related Uintatherium....  Like Uintatherium, it had three pairs of blunt horns on its skull, possibly covered with skin like the ossicones of a giraffe. The frontal pair may have been composed of keratin, like the horn of a rhinoceros. Eobasileus also had a pair of tusks which were shielded by bony protrusions of the lower jaw   more
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39

Paleoparadoxia

Paleoparadoxia is a genus of large, herbivorous aquatic mammals that inhabited the northern Pacific coastal region during the Miocene epoch. It ranged from the waters of Japan, to Alaska in the north, and down to Baja California, Mexico. Paleoparado... xia was about 2.2 m long   more
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40

Hapalops

Hapalops is an extinct genus of ground sloth from the late Oligocene of South America.Though related to the giant Megatherium, Hapalops was much smaller, measuring about 1 metre in length. Like most extinct sloths it is categorized as a ground sloth... , but it is believed that the smaller size of Hapalops allowed it to engage in some climbing behaviors   more
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41

Megalodon

Megalodon is an extinct species of shark that lived approximately 15.9 to 2.6 million years ago, during the Cenozoic Era.The taxonomic assignment of C. Megalodon has been debated for nearly a century, and is still under dispute. The two major interp... retations are Carcharodon megalodon or Carcharocles megalodon. Consequently, the scientific name of this species is commonly abbreviated C. Megalodon in the literature.C. Megalodon is regarded as one of the largest and most powerful predators in vertebrate history, and likely had a profound impact on the structure of marine communities. Fossil remains suggest that this giant shark reached a maximum length of 18 metres, and also affirm that it had a cosmopolitan distribution. Scientists suggest that C. Megalodon looked like a stockier version of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias   more
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42

Procoptodon

Procoptodon was a genus of giant short-faced kangaroo living in Australia during the Pleistocene epoch. P. Goliah, the largest known kangaroo that ever existed, stood approximately 2 m. They weighed about 230 kg. Other members of the genus are small... er, however, and Procoptodon gilli is the smallest of all of the sthenurine kangaroos, standing ~1m tall   more
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43

Stag-moose

The stag-moose was a large moose, with a muzzle more closely resembling that of a typical deer, of North America during the Pleistocene epoch. It is the only known North American member of the genus Cervalces.
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44

Titanoboa

Titanoboa; meaning "titanic boa," is an extinct genus of snake that lived approximately 60–58 million years ago, during the Paleocene epoch, a 10-million-year period immediately following the dinosaur extinction event. The only known species is Tita... noboa cerrejonensis, the largest, longest, and heaviest snake ever discovered, which supplanted the previous record holder, Gigantophis   more
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45

Futalognkosaurus

Futalognkosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian dinosaur. The herbivorous Futalognkosaurus lived approximately 87 million years ago in the Portezuelo Formation of the Coniacian stage of the late Cretaceous Period. The fish and fossilized leaf debris on...  the site, together with other dinosaur remains, suggest a warm tropical climate in Patagonia during this period   more
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46

Prionosuchus

Prionosuchus is an extinct genus of extremely large temnospondyl amphibians from the Middle Permian, fossils of which have been found in what is now Brazil.
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47

Trigonias

Trigonias is an extinct genus of rhinoceros from the late Eocene some 35 million years ago of North America.It is the oldest rhino of which a well-preserved skeleton has been found. Trigonias was about 2.1 m long and, despite lacking horns, looked a...  lot like modern rhinos. Its front legs had five toes, the fifth of which was vestigal.A specimen of T. Osborni was estimated to have a weight of about 391.4 kg   more
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48

Pelorovis

Pelorovis is an extinct genus of African wild cattle, which first appeared in the Pliocene, 2.5 million years ago, and became extinct at the end of the Late Pleistocene about 12,000 years ago or even during the Holocene, some 4,000 years ago. Recent...  detailed anatomical and morphometric studies come to the conclusion that Pelorovis is probably not monophyletic. According to these findings, the early forms of the genus are close relatives, and possibly the first members, of the genus Bos. In contrast, the late Pleistocene form seems to be a close relative of the modern African buffalo   more
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49

Sarkastodon

Sarkastodon is an extinct genus within the family Oxyaenidae that lived during the upper Eocene, approximately 35 million years ago. It was a large, carnivorous animal that lived in what is today Mongolia. Sarkastodon is known only from a skull and ... jawbones. Sarkastodon, like creodonts in general, was probably a hypercarnivore that preyed on large mammals in its range during the Late Eocene, such as brontotheres, chalicotheres, and rhinoceroses   more
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50

Turiasaurus

Turiasaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The fossils were known informally as "Riodevasaurus", a nomen nudum.Turiasaurus is believed to be the largest dinosaur ever found in Europe, and is among the largest ... dinosaurs known, at 36-39 metres in length and with a weight of 40 to 48 tonnes, the combined weight of six or seven adult male elephants. More recent estimates suggest a length closer to 30 m in length, but a comperable mass of 50 tonnes. The length of its skull is 70 centimetres, which is not too large. According to the paleontologist Luis Alcalá, this is because a larger head may have caused Turiasaurus to break its neck.Fragmentary remains of this animal, including an articulated left forelimb, skull fragments, teeth, vertebrae and ribs, have been found in terrestrial deposits of the Villar del Arzobispo Formation of Riodeva, and a forelimb from Portugal. The type species, Turiasaurus riodevensis, was formally described by Royo-Torres, Cobos & Alcala, in 2006. Recently, excavations have been made east of Madrid and what has been uncovered so far is the most complete fossil of such creatures in the whole world   more
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51

Paralititan

Paralititan was a giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur genus discovered in coastal deposits in the Upper Cretaceous Bahariya Formation of Egypt. It lived between 98 and 93 million years ago. It was called by one science journalist "what appears to ... have been the second largest known creature ever to walk on Earth.   more
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52

Uintatherium

Uintatherium is an extinct genus of herbivorous mammal that lived during the Eocene epoch; two species are currently recognized, U. Anceps from the United States during the Early to Middle Eocene, and U. Insperatus of Middle to Late Eocene China. Ui... ntatherium went extinct about 37 million years ago, presumably due to climate change and competition with perissodactyls, such as brontotheres and rhinos   more
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53

Dromornithidae

Dromornithidae (the dromornithids) were a clade of large, flightless Australian birds of the Oligocene through Pleistocene epochs. All are now extinct. They were long classified in Struthioniformes, but are now usually classified as Anseriformes. Dr... omornithids were part of the Australian megafauna. One species, Dromornis stirtoni, was 3 m (9.8 ft) tall. The collective term Australian megafauna is used to describe a number of comparatively large species of animals that lived in Australia until 50,000 to 20,000 years ago. The causes for the disappearance of these animals are under dispute, though hunting by humans has been identified as a potential instigator   more
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54

Titanotylopus

Titanotylopus is an extinct genus of terrestrial herbivore the family Camelidae, endemic to North America from the Miocene through Pleistocene 10.3 mya—300,000 years ago, existing for approximately 10 million years.Its name is derived from the Greek...  words Τιτάν, τύλος and πούς — "Titan", "knob" and "foot"; thus, "giant knobby-foot.   more
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55

Teleoceras

Teleoceras is an extinct genus of grazing rhinoceros. It lived in North America and southwestern France during the Miocene epoch, which ended about 5.3 million years ago, through the early Pliocene epoch.Teleoceras had much shorter legs than modern ... rhinos, and a barrel chest, making its build more like that of a hippopotamus than a modern rhino. Like the hippo, it was probably also semi-aquatic. Teleoceras had a single small nasal horn. It was a quite heavy animal, reaching 1.81 tons in weight.Teleoceras is the most common fossil in the Ashfall Fossil Beds of Nebraska. In fact, its remains were so numerous and concentrated that the building housing the greatest concentraion of Ashfall fossils is called the "Rhino Barn". Most of the skeletons are preserved in a nearly complete state. One extraordinary specimen includes the remains of a Teleoceras calf trying to suckle from its mother. This animal was featured in the episodes "Are Rhinos Dinos?" and "Dawn Of The Cats" of the Paleoworld series   more
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56

Syndyoceras

Syndyoceras is a small extinct genus of Artiodactyla, of the family Protoceratidae, endemic to central North America from the Miocene epoch, existing for approximately 4.2 million years.
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57

Andrewsarchus

Andrewsarchus mongoliensis, is an extinct mammal that lived during the Eocene epoch, roughly between 45 and 36 million years ago. It had a long snout with large, sharp teeth and flat cheek teeth that may have been used to crush bones. Because Andrew... sarchus is only known from a single skull, whether it was an active predator or a large scavenger is open to debate, as is its exact time range   more
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58

Arsinoitherium

Arsinoitherium is an extinct genus of paenungulate mammal related to elephants, sirenians, hyraxes and the extinct desmostylians, as well as to other extinct embrithopods. These species were elephant-like herbivores that lived during the late Eocene...  and the early Oligocene of northern Africa from 36 to 30 million years ago, in areas of tropical rainforest and at the margin of mangrove swamps. A newly discovered species, Arsinoitherium giganteum, lived in Ethiopia ~27 million years ago   more
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59

Astrapotherium

Astrapotherium is an extinct South American mammal which vaguely resembled a cross between a small elephant, and a very large tapir. This peculiar-looking animal was unrelated to modern elephants, and was, instead, related to other extinct South Ame... rican ungulates   more
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60

Aurochs

The aurochs, also urus, ure, is an extinct type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle. The species survived in Europe until the last recorded aurochs died in the Jaktorów Forest, Pol... and in 1627.During the Neolithic Revolution, which occurred during the early Holocene, there were at least two aurochs domestication events: one related to the Indian subspecies, leading to zebu cattle; the other one related to the Eurasian subspecies, leading to taurine cattle. Other species of wild bovines were also domesticated, namely the wild water buffalo, gaur, and banteng. In modern cattle, numerous breeds share characteristics of the aurochs, such as a dark colour in the bulls with a light eel stripe along the back, or a typical aurochs-like horn shape   more
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61

Brontotherium

Befitting its similarity to the duck-billed dinosaurs that preceded it by tens of millions of years, the giant, hooved mammal Brontotherium had an unusually small brain for its size--which may have made it ripe picking for Eocene predators.
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62

Camelops

Camelops is an extinct genus of camel that once roamed western North America, where it disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene about 10,000 years ago. It was very closely related to the Old World Dromedary and Bactrian Camel in anatomical form. It... s name is derived from the Greek κάμελος + ὀψ, thus "camel-face.   more
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63

Castoroides

Castoroides, or giant beaver, is an extinct genus of enormous beavers that lived in North America during the Pleistocene. C. Leiseyorum and its northern sister species Castoroides ohioensis, were the largest beavers to ever exist.
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64

Cave bear

The cave bear was a species of bear that lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and became extinct at the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum, about 27,500 years ago.Both the name "cave" and the scientific name spelaeus derive from the fact that f... ossils of this species were mostly found in caves, indicating this species spent more time in caves than the brown bear, which uses caves only for hibernation. Consequently, in the course of time, whole layers of bones, almost entire skeletons, were found in many caves   more
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65

Cave hyena

The cave hyena, also known as the Ice Age spotted hyena, was a paleosubspecies of spotted hyena which ranged from Iberian Peninsula to Eastern Siberia. It is one of the best known mammals of the Ice Age, and is well represented in many European bone...  caves. The cave hyena was a highly specialised animal, with its progressive and regressive features being more developed than in its modern African relative. It preyed on large mammals, and was responsible for the accumulation of hundreds of large Pleistocene mammal bones in areas including horizontal caves, sinkholes, mud pits and muddy areas along rivers.The cause of the cave hyena's extinction is not fully understood, though it could have been due to a combination of factors, including climate change and competition with other predators   more
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66

Cave Lion

Panthera leo spelaea or P. Spelaea, commonly known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an extinct subspecies of lion. It is known from fossils and many examples of prehistoric art.
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67

Sauroposeidon

Sauroposeidon is a genus of sauropod dinosaur known from several incomplete specimens including a bone bed and fossilized trackways that have been found in the American states of Oklahoma, Wyoming, and Texas. The fossils were found in rocks dating f... rom near the end of the Early Cretaceous, a time when sauropod diversity in North America had greatly diminished. It was the last known North American sauropod prior to an absence of the group on the continent of roughly 40 million years that ended with the appearance of Alamosaurus during the Maastrichtian.While the holotype remains were initially discovered in 1994, due to their unexpected age and unusual size they were initially misclassified as pieces of petrified wood. A more detailed analysis in 1999 revealed their true nature which resulted in a minor media frenzy, and formal publication of the find the following year.Paleoecological analysis indicates that Sauroposeidon lived on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, in a river delta   more
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68

Cotylorhynchus

Cotylorhynchus was a very large synapsid that lived in the southern part of what is now North America during the Early Permian period. It is the best known member of the synapsid clade Caseidae, the largest terrestrial vertebrates of the Early Permi... an. They were herbivores, and because of their enormous size, probably had no predators   more
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69

Jaekelopterus

Jaekelopterus rhenaniae was a species of the extinct arthropod group Eurypterida. Jaekelopterus lived approximately 390 million years ago. At an estimated length of 2.5 metres, it is one of the two largest arthropods ever discovered.
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70

Giraffatitan

Giraffatitan, meaning "giant giraffe", is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period. It was originally named as an African species of Brachiosaurus. Giraffatitan is one of the largest animals known to have walked the ea... rth   more
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71

Brachiosaurus

Brachiosaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Jurassic Morrison Formation of North America. It was first described by Elmer S. Riggs in 1903 from fossils found in the Grand River Canyon of western Colorado, in the United States. Riggs named...  the dinosaur Brachiosaurus altithorax, declaring it "the largest known dinosaur". Brachiosaurus had a disproportionately long neck, small skull, and large overall size, all of which are typical for sauropods. However, the proportions of Brachiosaurus are unlike most sauropods – the forelimbs were longer than the hindlimbs, which resulted in a steeply inclined trunk, and its tail was shorter in proportion to its neck than other sauropods of the Jurassic.Brachiosaurus is the namesake genus of the family Brachiosauridae, which includes a handful of other similar sauropods. Much of what is known by laypeople about Brachiosaurus is in fact based on Giraffatitan brancai, a species of brachiosaurid dinosaur from the Tendaguru Formation of Tanzania that was originally described by German paleontologist Werner Janensch as a species of Brachiosaurus   more
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72

Steller's sea cow

The Steller's sea cow was a large, herbivorous marine mammal. It was the largest member of the order Sirenia, which includes its closest living relative, the dugong, and the manatees, and "other than the great whales, likely the largest mammal to ex... ist in historic times". Although the sea cow had formerly been abundant throughout the North Pacific, by 1741, when it was first described by Georg Wilhelm Steller, chief naturalist on an expedition led by explorer Vitus Bering, its range had been limited to a single, isolated population surrounding the uninhabited Commander Islands. Within 27 years of discovery by Europeans, the slow-moving and easily captured Steller's sea cow was hunted to extinction   more
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73

Poebrotherium

Poebrotherium is an extinct genus of terrestrial herbivore the family Camelidae, endemic to North America from the Eocene through Oligocene 38—30.8 mya, existing for approximately 7.2 million years.
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74

Dunkleosteus

Dunkleosteus is a genus of prehistoric fish existing during the Late Devonian period, about 380–360 million years ago. Some of the species, such as D. Terrelli, D. Marsaisi, and D. Magnificus, are among the largest arthrodire placoderms ever to have...  lived.The largest species, D. Terrelli, measuring up to 10 m and weighing 3.6 t, was a hypercarnivorous apex predator. Few other placoderms, save, perhaps, its contemporary Titanichthys, rivaled Dunkleosteus in size.Dunkleosteus is a pachyosteomorph arthrodire originally placed in the family Dinichthyidae, a family composed mostly of large, carnivorous arthrodires like Gorgonichthys. Anderson suggests, because of its primitive jaw structure, Dunkleosteus should be placed outside the family Dinichthyidae, perhaps close to the base of the clade Pachyosteomorpha, near Eastmanosteus. Carr and Hlavin resurrect Dunkleosteidae and place Dunkleosteus, Eastmanosteus, and a few other genera from Dinichthyidae within it.New studies have revealed several features in both its food and biomechanics, as well as its ecology and physiology   more
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75

Anomalocaris

Anomalocaris is an extinct genus of anomalocaridid, a family of animals thought to be closely related to ancestral arthropods. The first fossils of Anomalocaris were discovered in the Ogygopsis Shale by Joseph Frederick Whiteaves, with more examples...  found by Charles Doolittle Walcott in the famed Burgess Shale. Originally several fossilized parts discovered separately were thought to be three separate creatures, a misapprehension corrected by Harry B. Whittington and Derek Briggs in a 1985 journal article   more
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76

Sivatherium

Sivatherium' is an extinct genus of giraffid that ranged throughout Africa to the Indian Subcontinent. The African species, S. Maurusium, was once placed within the genus "Libytherium." It may have become extinct as recently as 8,000 years ago, as d... epictions that greatly resemble it are known from ancient rock paintings in the Sahara desert   more
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77

Gigantopithecus blacki

Gigantopithecus is an extinct genus of ape that existed from perhaps nine million years to as recently as one hundred thousand years ago, in what is now Nepal, China, India, and Vietnam, placing Gigantopithecus in the same time frame and geographica... l location as several hominin species. The fossil record suggests that individuals of the species Gigantopithecus blacki were the largest known apes that ever lived, standing up to 3 m, and weighing up to 540 kg   more
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78

Megalania

Megalania is an extinct very large goanna or monitor lizard. They were part of a megafaunal assemblage that inhabited southern Australia during the Pleistocene. They seem to have disappeared between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago. The first aboriginal ... settlers of Australia might have encountered living Megalanias   more
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79

Thalassocnus

Thalassocnus is an extinct genus of apparently semiaquatic or fully aquatic marine sloth from the Miocene and Pliocene of South America. Fossils found to date have been from the coast of Peru and Chile. They were apparently grazers of sea grass and ... seaweed. The various species of this genus provides the best-documented case of gradual adaptation to a secondarily aquatic lifestyle. This is documented both at the morphological level, such as a progressive flattening of the radius and at the microanatomical level, which shows a progressive increase in compactness of the long limb bones and ribs. They may have used their powerful claws to anchor themselves to the sea floor to facilitate feeding, similar to the behavior of the marine iguana.The older species, T. Antiquus, T. Natans and T. Littoralis, show indications of partial adaptation to grazing, with little evidence of transverse mandibular movement while eating, and abundant dental striae indicating ingestion of sand from feeding on vegetation stranded on beaches or in shallow water   more
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80

Pyrotherium

Pyrotherium is an extinct genus of South American ungulate, of the order Pyrotheria, that lived in what is now Argentina, during the Early Oligocene. It was named "Fire Beast" because the first specimens were excavated from an ancient volcanic ashfa... ll.The vaguely elephant-like Pyrotherium was 3 m long and 1.50 m tall at the shoulders, with a weight up to 3500 kg for P. Romeroi. A recently discovered species, P. Macfaddeni was smaller, at under 900 kg in weight. The living animal's heavy body was carried by robust legs. Pyrotherium also had a short trunk on its snout, and two pairs of flat, forward-facing tusks in the upper jaw, with a single pair in the lower jaw.Possible South American descendants of the xenungulates, the complete study of the tarsus of Pyrotherium fails to support this relationship. In one study, derived characters were not seen in any mammal examined except the embrithopod Arsinoitherium from the Cenozoic of Africa. Whether this is due to common ancestry, or to the unusual mode of locomotion used by these animals remains to be seen   more
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81

Blunt-toothed giant hutia

The blunt-toothed giant hutia is an extinct species of giant hutia from Anguilla and Saint Martin that is estimated to have weighed between 50 and 200 kg.Discovered by Edward Drinker Cope in 1868 in a sample of phosphate sediments mined in an unknow... n cave in Anguilla and sent to Philadelphia to estimate the value of phosphate sediments   more
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Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-17T15:58:42.3153508-05:00
I should probably keep my mouth shut. Only problem is that the duct tape doesn't seem to be working.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-17T15:59:11.1188585-05:00
So many of these creatures are awesome, I can't really choose.
PetersSmith says2015-04-17T15:59:33.6448253-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: Silence is golden, but duct tape is silver.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-17T15:59:34.9396004-05:00
I guess I can vote for the one with america in its name.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-17T16:00:30.4589327-05:00
PetersSmith, many times was duct tape was used to keep me silent, many times it has failed.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-17T16:12:37.2645554-05:00
The water vapor from my mouth often cause the duct tape to fall off or at the least, provide an opening to talk.
Heraclitus says2015-04-17T16:46:06.3031193-05:00
Your mother
Heraclitus says2015-04-17T16:46:47.8691591-05:00
Joking
HououinKyouma says2015-04-22T17:27:41.8425871-05:00
Was this list created by a mammal chauvinist?

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