Favorite psychology discipline?

Posted by: PetersSmith

Am I wasting my time in making all these polls? Considering how unappreciative you all are.

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8 Total Votes
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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the func... tional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Some evolutionary psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the mind has a modular structure similar to that of the body, with different modular adaptations serving different functions. Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is the output of psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments.The adaptationist approach is steadily increasing as an influence in the general field of psychology.Evolutionary psychologists suggest that EP is not simply a subdiscipline of psychology but that evolutionary theory can provide a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the entire field of psychology, in the same way it has for biology   more
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Differential psychology

Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it. This is distinguished from other aspects of psychology in that although psychology is ostensibly a study of individuals, moder... n psychologists often study groups or biological underpinnings of cognition.For example, in evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy, the mean performance of the therapy in one treatment group might be compared to the mean effectiveness of a placebo in a second, control group. In this context, differences between individuals in their reaction to the experimental and control manipulations are actually treated as errors rather than as interesting phenomena to study.This is because psychological research depends upon statistical controls that are only defined upon groups of people. Individual difference psychologists usually express their interest in individuals while studying groups by seeking dimensions shared by all individuals but upon which individuals differ   more
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Mathematical psychology

Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with q... uantifiable behavior. The mathematical approach is used with the goal of deriving hypotheses that are more exact and thus yield stricter empirical validations. Quantifiable behavior is in practice often constituted by task performance.As quantification of behavior is fundamental in this endeavor, the theory of measurement is a central topic in mathematical psychology. Mathematical psychology is therefore closely related to psychometrics. However, where psychometrics is concerned with individual differences in mostly static variables, mathematical psychology focuses on process models of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes as inferred from the 'average individual'   more
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Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is therapy for a person's mental or emotional problems (psycho-, mind, + -therapy), typically by conversing with another person (talk therapy). This other person may be a psychiatrist, psychologist, counselor, clinical social worker, m... ember of the clergy, alternative practitioner, or (to use the concept in its broadest sense) any helpful person. With successful psychotherapy, a client changes in a positive way, resolving or mitigating troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thought, or emotions. Ideally, these are replaced with more pleasant and functional alternatives   more
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5

Social psychology

In psychology, social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical method of invest... igation. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors include all psychological variables that are measurable in a human being. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that we are prone to social influence even when no other people are present, such as when watching television, or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations. In general, social psychologists have a preference for laboratory-based, empirical findings. Social psychology theories tend to be specific and focused, rather than global and general.Social psychologists therefore deal with the factors that lead us to behave in a given way in the presence of others, and look at the conditions under which certain behavior/actions and feelings occur   more
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Personality psychology

Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. Its areas of focus include:Construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processesInvestigation of in... dividual psychological differencesInvestigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals"Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behavioral science in various situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. In i making changes the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but instead was a convention employed to represent or typify that character.Personality also refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress   more
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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of the science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective and behavioural well-being and pe... rsonal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is regulated as a health care profession.The field is often considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment. This changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, two main educational models have developed—the Ph.D. Scientist–practitioner model and, in the U.S. the Psy.D. Practitioner–scholar model   more
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8

Environmental psychology

Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learn... ing environments, and informational environments.Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aimed at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society. When solving problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global or local, one must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave. This model can help design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that enhance reasonable behavior, predict the likely outcomes when these conditions are not met, and diagnose problem situations. The field develops such a model of human nature while retaining a broad and inherently multidisciplinary focus   more
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Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding fundamental legal principles, particularly with regard to expert witness testimony and the specific content area of concern, as well as rele... vant jurisdictional considerations in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys and other legal professionals. An important aspect of forensic psychology is the ability to testify in court as an expert witness, reformulating psychological findings into the legal language of the courtroom, providing information to legal personnel in a way that can be understood. Further, in order to be a credible witness the forensic psychologist must understand the philosophy, rules, and standards of the judicial system. Primary is an understanding of the adversarial system. There are also rules about hearsay evidence and most importantly, the exclusionary rule. Lack of a firm grasp of these procedures will result in the forensic psychologist losing credibility in the courtroom. A forensic psychologist can be trained in clinical, social, organizational or any other branch of psychology   more
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Consumer Behaviour

Consumer Behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the co... nsumer and society. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, marketing and economics. It attempts to understand the decision-making processes of buyers, both individually and in groups such as how emotions affect buying behaviour. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, sports, reference groups, and society in general.Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Research has shown that consumer behaviour is difficult to predict, even for experts in the field   more
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Investigative psychology

Investigative psychology is the term given to a new area of applied psychology. This new field attempts to describe the actions of offenders and to develop an understanding of crime. This understanding can then help solve crimes and contribute to pr... osecution and defense procedures. It brings together issues in the retrieval of investigative information, the drawing of inferences about that information and the ways in which police decision making can be supported through various systems derived from scientific research   more
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Archetypal psychology

Archetypal psychology was initiated as a distinct movement in the early 1970s by James Hillman, a psychologist who trained in Analytical Psychology and became the first Director of the Jung Institute in Zurich. Hillman reports that Archetypal Psycho... logy emerged partly from the Jungian tradition whilst drawing also from other traditions and authorities such as Henry Corbin, Vico and Plotinus.Archetypal Psychology relativizes and deliteralizes the notion of ego and focuses on what it calls the psyche, or soul, and the deepest patterns of psychic functioning, "the fundamental fantasies that animate all life". Archetypal psychology likens itself to a polytheistic mythology in that it attempts to recognize the myriad of fantasies and myths - gods, goddesses, demigods, mortals and animals - that shape and are shaped by our psychological lives. In this framework the ego is but one psychological fantasy within an assemblage of fantasies. Archetypal psychology is, along with the classical and developmental schools, one of the three schools of post-Jungian psychology outlined by Andrew Samuels   more
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Educational psychology

Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in in... telligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. It is also informed by neuroscience   more
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Humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.F. Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, ... this approach emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity.It typically holds that people are inherently good. It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and human potential. It encourages viewing ourselves as a "whole person" greater than the sum of our parts and encourages self exploration rather than the study of behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the human psyche. It is linked to the emerging field of transpersonal psychology.Humanistic psychology has sometimes been referred to as the "third force" in psychology, distinct from the two more traditional approaches, which are psychoanalysis and behaviorism. In the context of post industrial society, humanistic psychology has begun to be seen as more relevant than the older approaches   more
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Cross-cultural psychology

Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions. Through expanding research methodologies to recognize cultural variance in ... behavior, language, and meaning it seeks to extend and develop psychology. Since psychology as an academic discipline was developed largely in North America, some psychologists became concerned that constructs accepted as universal were not as invariant as previously assumed, especially since many attempts to replicate notable experiments in other cultures had varying success. Since there are questions as to whether theories dealing with central themes, such as affect, cognition, conceptions of the self, and issues such as psychopathology, anxiety, and depression, may lack external validity when "exported" to other cultural contexts, cross-cultural psychology re-examines them using methodologies designed to factor in cultural differences so as to account for cultural variance   more
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Ecological psychology

Ecological psychology is a term claimed by several schools of psychology with the main one involving the work of James J. Gibson and his associates, and another on the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas i... n Lawrence. Whereas Gibsonian psychology is always termed Ecological Psychology, the work of Barker is also sometimes referred to as environmental psychology. There is a some overlap between the two schools, although the Gibsonian approach is more philosophical and deeply reflective on its predecessors in the history of psychology.Both schools emphasise 'real world' studies of behaviour as opposed to the artificial environment of the laboratory   more
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Engineering psychology

Engineering psychology is the science of human behavior and capability, applied to the design and operation of systems and technology. As an applied field of psychology and an interdisciplinary part of ergonomics, it aims to improve the relationship... s between people and machines by redesigning equipment, interactions, or the environment in which they take place. The work of an engineering psychologist is often described as making the relationship more "user-frien   more
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Socially distributed cognition

Distributed cognition is a psychological theory that knowledge lies not only within the individual, but also in the individual's social and physical environment. This theory was developed in the mid-1980s by Edwin Hutchins. Using insights from socio... logy, cognitive science, and the psychology of Vygotsky it emphasizes the social aspects of cognition. It is a framework that involves the coordination between individuals, artifacts and the environment. It has several key components:Embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interactionCoordination of enaction among embodied agentsEcological contributions to a cognitive ecosystemIn a sense, it expresses cognition as the process of information that occurs from interaction with symbols in the world. It considers and labels all phenomena responsible for this processing as ecological elements of a cognitive ecosystem. The ecosystem is the environment in which ecological elements assemble and interact in respect to a specific cognitive process   more
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Cultural neuroscience

Cultural neuroscience is the study of how cultural values, practices and beliefs shape and are shaped by the mind, brain and genes across multiple timescales. The study of cultural neuroscience bridges theory and methods from anthropology, psycholog... y, neuroscience and genetics. Cultural neuroscientists study cultural variation in mental, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties using a variety of methods. Researchers in cultural neuroscience are motivated by two fundamentally intriguing, yet still unanswered, questions on the origins of human nature and human diversity: how do cultural traits shape neurobiology and behavior and how do neurobiological mechanisms facilitate the emergence and transmission of cultural traits?The idea that complex behavior results from the dynamic interaction of genes and cultural environment is not new; however, cultural neuroscience represents a novel empirical approach to demonstrating bidirectional interactions between culture and biology by integrating theory and methods from cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics   more
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International psychology

International or global psychology is an emerging branch of psychology that focuses on the worldwide enterprise of psychology in terms of communication and networking, cross-cultural comparison, scholarship, practice, and pedagogy. Often, the terms ... international psychology, global psychology, and cross-cultural psychology are used interchangeably, but their purposes are subtly and importantly different: Global means worldwide, international means across and between nations, cross-cultural means across cultures. In contrast, the term “multicultural” is more often used to refer to ethnic and other cultural differences existing within a given nation rather than to global or international comparisons. This entry focuses predominantly on international psychology   more
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Experimental psychology

Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to the study of behavior and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, i... ncluding, among others sensation & perception, memory, cognition, learning, motivation, emotion; developmental processes, social psychology, and the neural substrates of all of these   more
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Counseling psychology

Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unif... ying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities. In the United States, the premier scholarly journals of the profession are the Journal of Counseling Psychology and The Counseling Psychologist.In Europe, the scholarly journals of the profession include the European Journal of Counselling Psychology and the Counselling Psychology Review. Counselling Psychology Quarterly is an international interdisciplinary publication of Routledge.In the U.S., counseling psychology programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association, while counseling programs are accredited through the Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. To become licensed as a counseling psychologist, one must meet the criteria of a psychologist's licence   more
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Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviours could be considered as abnormal, this bra... nch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context. There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant, and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophical dualism in regard to the mind body problem. There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders. Abnormal includes three different categories, they are subnormal, supernormal and paranormal.The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors   more
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Activity theory

Activity theory is an umbrella term for a line of eclectic social sciences theories and research with its roots in the Soviet psychological activity theory pioneered by Lev Vygotsky, Alexei Leont'ev and Sergei Rubinstein. These scholars sought to un... derstand human activities as complex, socially situated phenomena and to go beyond paradigms of reflexology and physiology of higher nervous activity, psychoanalysis and behaviorism. It became one of the major psychological approaches in the former USSR, being widely used in both theoretical and applied psychology, and in education, professional training, ergonomics, social psychology and work psychology.Activity theory is more of a descriptive meta-theory or framework than a predictive theory. It considers an entire work/activity system beyond just one actor or user. It accounts for environment, history of the person, culture, role of the artifact, motivations, and complexity of real life activity. One of the strengths of AT is that it bridges the gap between the individual subject and the social reality—it studies both through the mediating activity   more
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Analytical psychology

Analytical psychology, or Jungian psychology, is a school of psychology that originated from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. Analytical psychology emphasizes the primary importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for whole... ness. It recognizes the importance of the symbolic in human life, and emphasizes such concepts as the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, the archetype, the complex, the persona, the ego, the shadow, the anima and animus, the self, and individuation. Jung's theories have been elaborated and investigated by such figures as Toni Wolff, Marie-Louise von Franz, Jolande Jacobi, Aniela Jaffé, Erich Neumann, James Hillman, and Anthony Stevens   more
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Anomalistic psychology

In psychology, anomalistic psychology is the study of human behaviour and experience connected with what is often called the paranormal, without the assumption that there is anything paranormal involved.
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Applied behavior analysis

Applied behavior analysis, previously known as behavior modification, is defined as the process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, a... nd to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement of behavior. Contrary to popular belief, behavior analysts emphasize that the science of behavior must be a natural science as opposed to a social science. As such, behavior analysts focus on the observable relationship of behavior to the environment, including antecedents and consequences, without resort to "hypothetical constructs". By functionally assessing the relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment, the methods of ABA can be used to change that behavior.Methods in applied behavior analysis range from validated intensive behavioral interventions—most notably utilized for children with an autism spectrum disorder —to basic research which investigates the rules by which humans adapt and maintain behavior   more
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Applied psychology

Applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome problems in real life situations. Mental health, organizational psychology, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few...  of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings. Some of the areas of applied psychology include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, legal psychology, neuropsychology, occupational health psychology, human factors, forensic psychology, engineering psychology, school psychology, sports psychology traffic psychology, community psychology, medical psychology. In addition, a number of specialized areas in the general field of psychology have applied branches. However, the lines between sub-branch specializations and major applied psychology categories are often blurred. For example, a human factors psychologist might use a cognitive psychology theory. This could be described as human factor psychology or as applied cognitive psychology   more
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Asian psychology

Asian psychology is a branch of cultural psychology that studies psychological concepts as they relate to Asian culture. Psychologists studying these issue are often aligned with cross-cultural psychology.
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Behaviorism

Behaviorism, is an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be...  tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds. The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs.From early psychology in the 19th century, the behaviorist school of thought ran concurrently and shared commonalities with the psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements in psychology into the 20th century; but also differed from the mental philosophy of the Gestalt psychologists in critical ways   more
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Behavioral medicine

Behavioral medicine is an interdisciplinary field combining both medicine and psychology and is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness. These scien... ces include epidemiology, anthropology, sociology, psychology, physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, neuroanatomy, endocrinology, and immunology. The term is often used interchangeably, and incorrectly, with health psychology. The practice of behavioral medicine encompasses health psychology, but also includes applied psychophysiological therapies such as biofeedback, hypnosis, and bio-behavioral therapy of physical disorders, aspects of occupational therapy, rehabilitation medicine, and physiatry, as well as preventive medicine. In contrast, health psychology represents a stronger emphasis specifically on psychology's role in both behavioral medicine and behavioral health.This topic must also be distinguished from behavioral health, which focuses on prevention of disease, whereas behavioral medicine emphasizes remediation and healing of illness   more
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Behavioral neuroscience

Behavioral neuroscience tries to relate brain mechanisms and specific phenotypes. The approach measures and manipulates behavioral variables, often in connection with genetic, pharmacological or surgical interventions.
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Cognitive neuropsychology

Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how the brain's mental p... rocesses are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories, produce language, recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve. Cognitive neuropsychology places a particular emphasis on studying the cognitive effects of brain injury or neurological illness with a view to inferring models of normal cognitive functioning. Evidence is based on case studies of individual brain damaged patients who show deficits in brain areas and from patients who exhibit double dissociations. Double dissociations involve two patients and two tasks. One patient is impaired at one task but normal on the other, while the other patient is normal on the first task and impaired on the other   more
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Cognitive neuroscience

Cognitive neuroscience is an academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognit... ive functions are produced by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology and computational modeling.Due to its multidisciplinary nature, cognitive neuroscientists may have various backgrounds. Other than the associated disciplines just mentioned, cognitive neuroscientists may have backgrounds in neurobiology, bioengineering, psychiatry, neurology, physics, computer science, linguistics, philosophy and mathematics.Methods employed in cognitive neuroscience include experimental paradigms from psychophysics and cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiology, cognitive genomics and behavioral genetics   more
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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking." Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern ... disciplines of psychological study including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics   more
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Community psychology

Community psychology studies the individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society, and the relationships of the individual to communities and society. Community psychologists seek to understand the quality of life of individuals, commu... nities, and society. Their aim is to enhance quality of life through collaborative research and action.Community psychology employ various perspectives within and outside of psychology to address issues of communities, the relationships within them, and related people's attitudes and behaviour.Rappaport discusses the perspective of community psychology as an ecological perspective on the person–environment fit being the focus of study and action instead of attempting to change the personality of individual or the environment when an individual is seen as having a problem.Closely related disciplines include ecological psychology, environmental psychology, cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, political science, public health, sociology, social work, and community development   more
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Comparative psychology

Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior, and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Research in this area addre... sses many different issues, uses many different methods, and explores the behavior of many different species, from insects to primates.Comparative psychology is sometimes assumed to emphasize cross-species comparisons, including those between humans and animals. However, some researchers feel that direct comparisons should not be the sole focus of comparative psychology and that intense focus on a single organism to understand its behavior is just as desirable; if not more so. Donald Dewsbury reviewed the works of several psychologists and their definitions and concluded that the object of comparative psychology is to establish principles of generality focusing on both proximate and ultimate causation.Using a comparative approach to behavior allows one to evaluate the target behavior from four different, complementary perspectives, developed by Niko Tinbergen. First, one may ask how pervasive the behavior is across species   more
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Economic psychology

Behavioral economics and the related field, behavioral finance, study the effects of psychological, social, cognitive, and emotional factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and the consequences for market prices, returns, a... nd the resource allocation. Behavioral economics is primarily concerned with the bounds of rationality of economic agents. Behavioral models typically integrate insights from psychology, neuroscience and microeconomic theory; in so doing, these behavioral models cover a range of concepts, methods, and fields. Behavioral economics is sometimes discussed as an alternative to neoclassical economics.The study of behavioral economics includes how market decisions are made and the mechanisms that drive public choice. The use of "Behavioral economics" in U.S. scholarly papers has increased in the past few years as a recent study shows.There are three prevalent themes in behavioral finances:Heuristics: People often make decisions based on approximate rules of thumb and not strict logic.Framing: The collection of anecdotes and stereotypes that make up the mental emotional filters individuals rely on to understand and respond to events   more
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Experimental analysis of behavior

The experimental analysis of behavior is the name given to the school of psychology founded J.B. Watson. EAB paved the way of I. Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning and B. F. Skinner’s philosophy of radical behaviorism. A central principle was...  the inductive, data-driven examination of functional relations, as opposed to the kinds of hypothetico-deductive learning theory that had grown up in the comparative psychology of the 1920–1950 period. Skinner's approach was characterized by empirical observation of measurable behavior which could be predicted and controlled. It owed its early success to the effectiveness of Skinner's procedures of operant conditioning, both in the laboratory and in behavior therapy—what is now called applied behavior analysis   more
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Cultural psychology

Cultural psychology is the study of how psychological and behavioral tendencies are rooted in and embodied in culture. The main tenet of cultural psychology is that mind and culture are inseparable and mutually constitutive, meaning that people are ... shaped by their culture and their culture is also shaped by them. As Richard Shweder, one of the major proponents of the field, writes, "Cultural psychology is the study of the way cultural traditions and social practices regulate, express, and transform the human psyche, resulting less in psychic unity for humankind than in ethnic divergences in mind, self, and emotion.   more
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Criminal psychology

Criminal psychology also referred to as Criminological psychology is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions and reactions of criminals, all that partakes in the criminal behavior.It is related to the field of criminal anthropology. The study g... oes deeply into what makes someone commit a crime, but also the reactions after the crime, on the run or in court. Criminal psychologists are often called up as witnesses in court cases to help the jury understand the mind of the criminal. Some types of Psychiatry also deal with aspects of criminal behavior   more
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Health psychology

Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness. Psychologi... cal factors can affect health directly. For example, chronically occurring environmental stressors affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For example, certain behaviors can, over time, harm or enhance health. Health psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach. In other words, health psychologists understand health to be the product not only of biological processes but also of psychological, behavioral, and social processes.By understanding psychological factors that influence health, and constructively applying that knowledge, health psychologists can improve health by working directly with individual patients or indirectly in large-scale public health programs. In addition, health psychologists can help train other healthcare professionals to take advantage of the knowledge the discipline has generated, when treating patients   more
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Sport psychology

Sport psychology is an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology. It involves the study of how psychological factors affect performance and how participa... tion in sport and exercise affect psychological and physical factors. In addition to instruction and training of psychological skills for performance improvement, applied sport psychology may include work with athletes, coaches, and parents regarding injury, rehabilitation, communication, team building, and career transitions   more
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Traffic psychology

Traffic psychology is a discipline of psychology that studies the relationship between psychological processes and the behavior of road users. In general, traffic psychology aims to apply theoretical aspects of psychology in order to improve traffic...  mobility by helping to develop and apply accident countermeasures, as well as by guiding desired behaviors through education and the motivation of road users.Behavior is frequently studied in conjunction with accident research in order to assess causes and differences in accident involvement. Traffic psychologists distinguish three motivations of driver behavior: reasoned or planned behavior, impulsive or emotional behavior, and habitual behavior. Additionally, social and cognitive applications of psychology are used, such as enforcement, road safety education campaigns, and also therapeutic and rehabilitation programs.Broad theories of cognition, sensory-motor and neurological aspects psychology are also applied to the field of traffic psychology   more
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Prenatal and perinatal psychology

Prenatal and perinatal psychology is an interdisciplinary study of the foundations of health in body, mind, emotions and in enduring response patterns to life. It explores the psychological and psychophysiological effects and implications of the ear... liest experiences of the individual, before birth, as well as during and immediately after childbirth on the health and learning ability of the individual and on their relationships. As a broad field it has developed a variety of curative and preventive interventions for the unborn, at childbirth, for the newborn, infants and adults who are adversely affected by early prenatal and perinatal dysfunction and trauma. Some of these methods have not been without significant controversy, for example homebirth in the West and in earlier days, LSD psychotherapy for resolving birth trauma   more
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Psychophysiology

Psychophysiology is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes. While psychophysiology was a general broad field of research in the 1960s and 1970s, it has now become quite specialized, and has...  branched into subspecializations. For example, social psychophysiology, cardiovascular psychophysiology, cognitive psychophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience   more
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Psychology of art

The psychology of art is an interdisciplinary field that studies the perception, cognition and characteristics of art and its production. For the use of art materials as a form of psychotherapy, see art therapy. The psychology of art is related to a... rchitectural psychology and environmental psychology.The work of Theodor Lipps, a Munich-based research psychologist, played an important role in the early development of the concept of art psychology in the early decade of the twentieth century. His most important contribution in this respect was his attempt to theorize the question of Einfuehlung or "empathy", a term that was to become a key element in many subsequent theories of art psychology   more
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48

Situated cognition

Situated cognition is a theory that posits that knowing is inseparable from doing by arguing that all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.Under this assumption, which requires an epistemological shift fr... om empiricism, situativity theorists suggest a model of knowledge and learning that requires thinking on the fly rather than the storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. In essence, cognition cannot be separated from the context. Instead knowing exists, in situ, inseparable from context, activity, people, culture, and language. Therefore, learning is seen in terms of an individual's increasingly effective performance across situations rather than in terms of an accumulation of knowledge, since what is known is co-determined by the agent and the context. This perspective rejects mind-body dualism and person-environment dualism, being conceptually similar to functional contextualism, and B.F. Skinner's behavior analysis   more
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49

Social neuroscience

Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior. H... umans are fundamentally a social species, rather than individualists. As such, Homo sapiens create emergent organizations beyond the individual—structures that range from dyads, families, and groups to cities, civilizations, and cultures. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural and hormonal mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too survived to reproduce. The term "social neuroscience" can be traced to a publication entitled "Social Neuroscience Bulletin" that was published quarterly between 1988 and 1994. The term was subsequently popularized in an article by John Cacioppo and Gary Berntson, published in the American Psychologist in 1992. Cacioppo and Berntson are considered as the legitimate fathers of social neuroscience   more
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50

Music psychology

Music psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, respon... ded to, and incorporated into everyday life. Modern music psychology is primarily empirical; its knowledge tends to advance on the basis of interpretations of data collected by systematic observation of and interaction with human participants. Music psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human aptitude, skill, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior.Music psychology can shed light on non-psychological aspects of musicology and musical practice. For example, it contributes to music theory through investigations of the perception and computational modelling of musical structures such as melody, harmony, tonality, rhythm, meter, and form   more
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51

Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. Initial forays into psycholinguistics were largely philosophical or educat... ional schools of thought, due mainly to their location in departments other than applied sciences. Modern research makes use of biology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, and information theory to study how the brain processes language, and less so the known processes of social sciences, human development, communication theories and infant development, among others. There are a number of subdisciplines with non-invasive techniques for studying the neurological workings of the brain; for example, neurolinguistics has become a field in its own right.Psycholinguistics has roots in education and philosophy, and in 2013 covers the "cognitive processes" that make it possible to generate a grammatical and meaningful sentence out of vocabulary and grammatical structures, as well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, text, etc   more
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52

Clinical behavior analysis

Clinical behavior analysis has its origins in applied behavior analysis and cognitive-behavior therapy. It is sometimes referred to as third-generation behavior therapy.
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53

Industrial and organizational psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. I-O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. I-O psychologi... sts contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, satisfaction, safety, health and well-being of its employees. An I–O psychologist conducts research on employee behaviors and attitudes, and how these can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, feedback, and management systems. I–O psychologists also help organizations and their employees transition among periods of change and organization development.I-O psychology is one of the 14 recognized specialties and proficiencies in professional psychology in the United States and is represented by Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, known formally as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In the UK, industrial and organizational psychologists are referred to as occupational psychologists and one of 7 'protected titles' and specializations in psychology regulated by the Health and Care Professions Council   more
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54

Discursive psychology

Discursive psychology is a form of discourse analysis that focuses on psychological themes.Discursive psychology starts with psychological phenomena as things that are constructed, attended to, and understood in interaction. An evaluation, say, may ... be constructed using particular phrases and idioms, responded to by the recipient and treated as the expression of a strong position. In discursive psychology the focus is not on psychological matters somehow leaking out into interaction; rather interaction is the primary site where psychological issues are live.It is philosophically opposed to more traditional cognitivist approaches to language. It uses studies of naturally occurring conversation to critique the way that topics have been conceptualised and treated in psychology   more
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55

Critical psychology

Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory. Critical psychology challenges mainstream psychology and attempts to apply psychological understandings in more progressive ways, often looking towards soc... ial change as a means of preventing and treating psychopathology.One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can impact the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people. It does this, in part, because it tends to explain behavior at the level of the individual   more
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56

Legal psychology

Legal psychology involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law. Legal psychologists typically take basic social and cognitive principles and apply them to issues in the legal...  system such as eyewitness memory, jury decision-making, investigations, and interviewing. The term "legal psychology" has only recently come into usage, primarily as a way to differentiate the experimental focus of legal psychology from the clinically-oriented forensic psychology.Together, legal psychology and forensic psychology form the field more generally recognized as "psychology and law". Following earlier efforts by psychologists to address legal issues, psychology and law became a field of study in the 1960s as part of an effort to enhance justice, though that originating concern has lessened over time   more
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57

Psychohistory

Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events. It attempts to combine the insights of psychotherapy with the research methodology of the social sciences to understand the emotional origin of the social and politica... l behavior of groups and nations, past and present. Its subject matter is childhood and the family, and psychological studies of anthropology and ethnology   more
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58

Theoretical psychology

Theoretical psychology is concerned with theoretical and philosophical aspects of the discipline of psychology. It is an interdisciplinary field involving psychologists specialising in, amongst others, cognitive, social, developmental, personality, ... clinical, perceptual, neurological, biological, evolutionary, historical, economic, political and critical psychology.In the United States, one group focused on theoretical and philosophical issues in Psychology is The Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology. This society regularly hosts symposia, lectures, roundtable discussion, and poster sessions at the annual APA conference. In Europe Laszlo Garai developed a theoretical psychology based on the methodological proposal of Kurt Lewin and the theory of Lev Vygotsky   more
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59

School Psychology

School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning nee... ds in a collaborative manner with educators and parents. School psychologists are educated in psychology, child and adolescent development, child and adolescent psychopathology, education, family and parenting practices, learning theories, and personality theories. They are knowledgeable about effective instruction and effective schools. They are trained to carry out psychological testing and psychoeducational assessment, counseling, and consultation, and in the ethical, legal and administrative codes of their profession   more
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60

Performance psychology

Performance psychology is a branch of that focuses upon the factors that allow individuals, teams, and groups to achieve their aims. It engages the performer on how to be successful by developing the power of the mind and to practice mental skills t... raining in their daily lives.The training that underpins the psychology of performance has been researched and scientifically proven over many decades and is perfect grounding for those other performers in business; others in the performing arts such as dance, music, entertainment and the stage who wish to deliver an exceptional performance when it really matters and other professionals such as entrepreneurs, medical and legal professions, small business owners,and many more   more
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61

Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularized by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Since then, psychoan... alysis has expanded and been revised, reformed and developed in different directions. This was initially by Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung who went on to develop their own ideas independently from Freud. Later Neo-Freudians included Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Jacques Lacan.The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include the following:besides the inherited constitution of personality, a person's development is determined by events in early childhood;human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives;irrational drives are unconscious;attempts to bring these drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms   more
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62

Quantitative psychology

Quantitative psychology is a field of scientific study that focuses on the research design and methodology, mathematical modeling, and statistical analysis of human attributes and psychological processes. Quantitative psychology has two major subfie... lds: psychometrics and mathematical psychology. Broadly, psychometrics focuses on measurement, and is generally more applied in focus than mathematical psychology. Notable areas of research in psychometrics include item response theory and computer adaptive testing. The focus of mathematical psychology is more theoretical and focused on modeling. Foci for mathematical psychologists include modeling psychological processes through time series analysis, such as in fMRI data collection, and structural equation modeling. Other areas of research in quantitative psychology include social network analysis, human decision science, and statistical genetics.Quantitative psychologists have traditionally been in very high demand in industry, government, and academia   more
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63

Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the en... tire lifespan. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes; cognitive development involving areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. One influential developmental psychologists was Erik Erikson. Another famous developmental psychologist was Sigmund Freud, who studied psychosexual development   more
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64

Psychology of religion

Psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious traditions, as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. The science attempts to accurately describe the details, origi... ns, and uses of religious beliefs and behaviors. Although the psychology of religion first arose as a self-conscious discipline as recently as the late 19th century, all three of these tasks have a history going back many centuries before that.Many areas of religion remain unexplored by psychology. While religion and spirituality play a role in many people’s lives, it is uncertain how they lead to outcomes that are at times positive, and at other times negative. Thus, the pathways and outcomes that underlie these associations need additional research. Continued dialogue between psychology and theology may foster greater understanding and benefit both fields   more
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65

Peace psychology

Peace Psychology is a subfield of Psychology and Peace Research that deals with the psychological aspects of peace, conflict, violence, and war. Peace psychology can be characterized by four interconnected pillars: research, education, practice, and...  advocacy. The first pillar, research, is documented most extensively in this Wiki entry.Peace psychological activities are based on psychological models and methods; they are usually normatively bound in their means and objectives by working towards the ideal of sustainable peace using non-violent means. Violence and peace are usually defined in terms of Johan Galtung's extended conceptualization of peace, according to which peace is not merely the absence of personal violence and war, but also the absence of structural and cultural violence. The ideal of peace can also be conceptualized as the comprehensive implementation of human rights; this should, among other purposes, ensure the satisfaction of basic human needs, such as positive personal and social identity, sense of control, security, justice, well-being, a safe environment, and access to adequate food and shelter   more
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66

Police psychology

Police psychology is a subfield of forensic psychology addressing issues specific to police personnel and other public safety workers.
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67

Occupational health psychology

Occupational health psychology is an interdisciplinary area of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of workers. Houdmont and Leka noted seven major topics of occupational stress, occupational burnout, work-family conflict, workpla... ce violence and other forms of mistreatment, safety, employment issues, and health issues. OHP emerged from two distinct applied psychology disciplines, health psychology and industrial and organizational psychology, and has been informed by other disciplines including industrial sociology, industrial engineering, economics, preventive medicine, public health, and occupational health. OHP is concerned with psychosocial factors in the work environment and the development, maintenance, and promotion of employee health and that of their families. The field focuses on factors in the workplace that can lead to injury, disease, and distress   more
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68

Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It is seen as a clinical and experimental field of psychology that aims to study, assess, understand and treat behavior... s directly related to brain functioning. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied to efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells in higher primates. It is scientific in its approach, making use of neuroscience, and shares an information processing view of the mind with cognitive psychology and cognitive science.In practice neuropsychologists tend to work in research settings, clinical settings, forensic settings or industry   more
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69

Positive psychology

Positive psychology is the branch of psychology that uses scientific understanding and effective intervention to aid in the achievement of a satisfactory life, rather than merely treating mental illness.
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70

Filipino psychology

Pilipino psychology, or Sikolohiyang Pilipino, in Pilipino, is defined as the psychology rooted on the experience, ideas, and cultural orientation of the Filipinos. It is regulated by the Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino, in English, whic... h was established in 1975 by Virgilio Enriquez, regarded by many as the Father of Filipino Psychology   more
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71

Transpersonal psychology

Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field or "school" of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology. It is also possible to define it as a "spiritual psychology". T... he transpersonal is defined as "experiences in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos". It has also been defined as "development beyond conventional, personal or individual levels".Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, self beyond the ego, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance, spiritual crises, spiritual evolution, religious conversion, altered states of consciousness, spiritual practices, and other sublime and/or unusually expanded experiences of living. The discipline attempts to describe and integrate spiritual experience within modern psychological theory and to formulate new theory to encompass such experience.Transpersonal psychology has made several contributions to the academic field, and the studies of human development, consciousness and spirituality   more
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72

Systems psychology

Systems psychology is a branch of both theoretical psychology and applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems. It is inspired by systems theory and systems thinking, and based on the theoretical work of Roger Ba... rker, Gregory Bateson, Humberto Maturana and others. Groups and individuals are considered as systems in homeostasis. Alternative terms here are "systemic psychology", "systems behavior", and "systems-based psychology"   more
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73

Popular psychology

Popular psychology is the concepts and theories about human mental life and behavior that are purportedly based on psychology and that find credence among and pass muster with the populace. The concept is cognate with the human potential movement of...  the 1950s and '60s.The term "pop psychologist" can be used to describe authors, consultants, lecturers and entertainers who are widely perceived as being psychologists, not because of their academic credentials, but because they have projected that image or have been perceived in that way in response to their work.The term popular psychology can also be used when referring to the popular psychology industry, a sprawling network of everyday sources of information about human behavior.The term is often used in a pejorative fashion to describe psychological concepts that appear oversimplified, out of date, unproven, misunderstood or misinterpreted; however, the term may also be used to describe professionally produced psychological knowledge, regarded by most experts as valid and effective, that is intended for use by the general public   more
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74

Psychometrics

Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement. One part of the field is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educat... ional achievement. For example, psychometric research has concerned itself with the construction and validation of assessment instruments such as questionnaires, tests, raters' judgments, and personality tests. Another part of the field is concerned with statistical research bearing on measurement theory.Thus psychometrics involves two major research tasks: the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement. Those who practice psychometrics are known as psychometricians. All psychometricians possess a specific psychometric qualification, and while most are psychologists with advanced graduate training in psychometric testing. Many work in human resources departments. Others specialize as learning and development professionals   more
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75

Psychopathology

Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes; course across all stages of development; manifestations; and ... treatment   more
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76

Military psychology

Military psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or civilian population that may be undesirable, t... hreatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations. Military psychology transforms from sub-branch groups of different psychology disciplines into a tool used by the military, as will all tools of the military, to enable the troops to better survive the stresses of war while using psychological principles to unbalance the enemy forces for easier wins. All stresses and psychological illnesses that military psychology looks at are not specific only to the military. However, the military soldiers tend to face a specific combination of these otherwise generic stresses. Military psychology then specializes in looking at this unique combination of stresses that plagues the military and war settings. These stresses include posttraumatic stress disorder, guilt, family difficulties with the veteran's spouse, nightmares and flashbacks, and many more   more
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77

Psycho-oncology

Psycho-oncology is a field of interdisciplinary study and practice at the intersection of lifestyle, psychology and oncology. It is concerned with aspects of cancer that go beyond medical treatment and include lifestyle, psychological and social asp... ects of cancer. Sometimes it is also referred to as psychosocial oncology or behavioral oncology because it deals with psychosocial and behavioral topics. The field is concerned both with the effects of cancer on a person's psychological health as well as the social and behavioral factors that may affect the disease process of cancer and/or the remission of it. Practitioners of "proactive psycho-oncology" see their work as an autonomous intervention intended to reverse the epigenetic pressure that led to the genetic changes and later the formation of tumors.This is where the effects of:chemobrain or post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment "PCCI" would be addressed.Radiation induced cognitive decline issues.Placebo effect and the nocebo effect will be studied.Self care issues are studied   more
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78

Political psychology

Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics, politicians and political behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with...  psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology. As an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including: anthropology, sociology, international relations, economics, philosophy, media, journalism and history.Political psychology aims to understand interdependent relationships between individuals and contexts that are influenced by beliefs, motivation, perception, cognition, information processing, learning strategies, socialization and attitude formation. Political psychological theory and approaches have been applied in many contexts such as: leadership role; domestic and foreign policy making; behavior in ethnic violence, war and genocide; group dynamics and conflict; racist behavior; voting attitudes and motivation; voting and the role of the media; nationalism; and political extremism   more
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79

Sensation

In psychology, sensation and perception are stages of processing of the senses in human and animal systems, such as vision, auditory, vestibular, and pain senses. Included in this topic is the study of illusions such as motion aftereffect, color con... stancy, auditory illusions, and depth perception.Sensation is the function of the low-level biochemical and neurological events that begin with the impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a sensory organ. It is the detection of the elementary properties of a stimulus.Perception is the mental process or state that is reflected in statements like "I see a uniformly blue wall", representing awareness or understanding of the real-world cause of the sensory input. The goal of sensation is detection, the goal of perception is to create useful information of the surroundings.In other words, sensations are the first stages in the functioning of senses to represent stimuli from the environment, and perception is a higher brain function about interpreting events and objects in the world. Stimuli from the environment are transformed into neural signals, which are then interpreted by the brain, through a process called transduction   more
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80

Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, m... edicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology   more
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81

Medical psychology

Medical psychology is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine for both physical and mental disorders. The American Psychological Association (APA) defines medical psychology as "that branch of psychology that integrat... es somatic and psychotherapeutic modalities into the management of mental illness and emotional, cognitive, behavioral and substance use disorders". A medical psychologist does not automatically equate with a psychologist who has the authority to prescribe medication. Psychologists who hold prescriptive authority for specific psychiatric medications such as antidepressants and other pharmaceutical drugs must first obtain specific qualifications in Psychopharmacology   more
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(Maximum 900 words)
SamStevens says2015-04-10T17:42:38.5051363-05:00
"Am I wasting my time in making all these polls?" No, your polls cancel out the 'lower quality' polls.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T17:48:41.1922044-05:00
PetersSmith, remember when I said your polls delude the results, this is another one of those. 81 is way too much.
PetersSmith says2015-04-10T17:59:36.9718735-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: It's actually supposed to be 83, 5 of them were submitted and I only found 2.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T18:02:40.1813646-05:00
Still too diluted.
PetersSmith says2015-04-10T18:10:50.0964919-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: And what would you have preferred 10 options and an "other"? People don't even know what the disciplines are.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T18:28:17.0517441-05:00
PetersSmith, do you really think most people will read through all 81? The only reason why I picked mathematical psychology was because I saw it on accident scrolling down to the comments.
reece says2015-04-10T18:29:56.7014999-05:00
@PetersSmith This is the age of information, people have short Attention Spans...
PetersSmith says2015-04-10T18:29:58.3392210-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: If they're interested in the subject, then yes. However, I think that second part of the description applies to you.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T18:34:19.6497957-05:00
You could have broken it down into larger subsections. Some of these are very similar. I guess this wasn't design to be a poll but an informer of psychology.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T18:43:37.0738758-05:00
If it was just to be an informer than you effectively have informed people of 81 psychology disciplines, you succeeded.
SamStevens says2015-04-10T18:58:35.8642076-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: "You could have broken it down into larger subsections." Why? It was not that much of a chore to skim through the answers.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T19:01:58.2253980-05:00
"Why? It was not that much of a chore to skim through the answers." If this was designed to be an actual poll 81 options deludes the results. I am guessing this was designed to be an informer so the 81 options doesn't matter in that case.
PetersSmith says2015-04-10T19:04:04.0526796-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: I'm sorry, but who is number one in the leaderboards with you only having 20 polls? I am, so I think I can classify what a good poll is.
reece says2015-04-10T19:05:43.9687581-05:00
@PetersSmith You shouldn't take what hes said to heart then.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T19:13:28.2782289-05:00
If you think 81 options is good for a poll, then you clearly haven't learned much about polls in your way to the top of the leaderboards. You don't need to do many polls to know what diluting amount of options is. But you seem to refuse to hear what lower not worthy 20 pollers think. If this was an informer then you did a good job, if this was a poll then you may have not done a good job.
reece says2015-04-10T19:14:25.5585654-05:00
@Mathgeekjoe Lets just stop.
PetersSmith says2015-04-10T19:16:25.5688434-05:00
Mathgeekjoe: Unappreciative.
reece says2015-04-10T19:18:10.6951977-05:00
@Mathgeekjoe Polls are informers either way. PetersSmith just does a really good job of it, sometimes too good.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T19:18:43.5637656-05:00
"If this was an informer then you did a good job." said this like 2-3 times already.
Mathgeekjoe says2015-04-10T19:19:56.8504623-05:00
Ok I will settle with that, this is a tooo good poll.
Kreakin says2015-04-10T19:21:56.2980591-05:00
He's still het up over the gay marriage thing. PetersSmith's polls are comprehensive and informative, you are not in a position to criticize really.

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