What ailment of unknown etiology should we focus on studying more on than the rest?

Posted by: PetersSmith

I tried to keep "disturbing images" to a minimal.

Vote
3 Total Votes
1

Senescence

Senescence or biological aging (also spelled biological ageing) is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after...  maturation. The word "senescence" can refer either to cellular senescence or to senescence of the whole organism. It is commonly believed that cellular senescence underlies organismal senescence. The science of biological aging is biogerontology. There are a number of hypotheses as to why senescence occurs; for example, some posit it is programmed by gene expression changes, others that it is the cumulative damage caused by biological processes. Whether senescence as a biological process itself can be slowed down, halted or even reversed, is a subject of current scientific speculation and research   more
2 votes
1 comment
2

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of function and death of nerve cells in several areas of the brain leading to loss of cognitive function such as memory and language.
1 vote
0 comments
3

Balanitis xerotica obliterans

Balanitis xerotica obliterans is a dermatological condition affecting the male genitalia. It was first described by Stuhmer in 1928, though earlier reports describe what may have been the same condition. BXO commonly occurs on the foreskin and glans...  penis. Atrophic white patches appear on the affected area, and commonly, a whitish ring of indurated tissue usually forms near the tip that may prevent retraction   more
0 votes
0 comments
4

Bell's palsy

Bell's palsy is a form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII causing an inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Often the eye in the affected side cannot be closed. The eye must be protected from...  drying up, or the cornea may be permanently damaged resulting in impaired vision. In some cases denture wearers experience some discomfort. The common presentation of this condition is a rapid onset of partial or complete paralysis that often occurs overnight. In rare cases, it can occur on both sides resulting in total facial paralysis.Bell's palsy is defined as a one sided facial nerve paralysis of unknown cause. Several other conditions can also cause facial paralysis, e.G., brain tumor, stroke, myasthenia gravis, and Lyme disease; however, if no specific cause can be identified, the condition is known as Bell's palsy. It is thought that an inflammatory condition leads to swelling of the facial nerve. The nerve travels through the skull in a narrow bone canal beneath the ear. Nerve swelling and compression in the narrow bone canal are thought to lead to nerve inhibition, damage or death   more
0 votes
0 comments
5

Blain

Blain was an animal disease of unknown etiology that was well known in the eighteenth- and nineteenth centuries. It is unclear whether it is still extant, or what modern disease it corresponds to.According to Ephraim Chambers' eighteenth-century Cyc... lopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, blain was "a distemper" occurring in animals, consisting in a "Bladder growing on the Root of the Tongue against the Wind-Pipe", which "at length swelling, stops the Wind". It was thought to occur "by great chafing, and heating of the Stomach".Blain is also mentioned in Cattle: Their Breeds, Management, and Diseases, published in 1836, where it is also identified as "gloss-anthrax". W. C. Spooner's 1888 book The History, Structure, Economy and Diseases of the Sheep also identifies blain as being the same as gloss-anthrax.Modern scholarship suggests that "gloss-anthrax" was not the same disease as modern-day anthrax, but instead could have been foot-and-mouth disease, or a viral infection with a secondary Fusobacterium necrophorum infection. It has also been suggested that it may have been due to a variant strain of true anthrax that is no longer in existence   more
0 votes
0 comments
6

Brainerd diarrhea

Brainerd diarrhea is a sudden-onset watery, explosive diarrhea that lasts for months and does not respond to antibiotics; the cause of Brainerd diarrhea is unknown. Brainerd diarrhea was first described in Brainerd, Minnesota in 1983. It has been as... sociated with the consumption of raw milk and untreated water. Of the ten outbreaks reported since 1983, nine have been in the U.S. The characteristics of each outbreak have been similar to that caused by an infectious agent. Although a comparatively large outbreak occurred in 1996 in Fannin County, Texas., the largest outbreak was the original one in Brainerd, MN. There have been no secondary cases reported in any of the outbreaks, suggesting that the causative agent cannot be passed from person to person, but boiling water appears to inactivate the Brainerd agent. Although there is no treatment available, the disease does appear to resolve itself, although this process takes months if not years   more
0 votes
0 comments
7

Cardiac syndrome X

Cardiac syndrome X is angina with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries. Some studies have found increased risk of other vasospastic disorders in cardiac syndrome X patients, such as migraine an... d Raynaud's phenomenon. It is treated with beta-blockers, such as metoprolol, and usually carries a favorable prognosis.This is a distinct diagnosis from Prinzmetal's angina.Cardiac syndrome X is sometimes referred to as microvascular angina when there are findings of microvascular dysfunction   more
0 votes
0 comments
8

Christopher Smart's asylum confinement

The English poet Christopher Smart was confined to mental asylums from May 1757 until January 1763. Smart was admitted into St Luke's Hospital for Lunatics, Bethnal Green, London, on 6 May 1757, taken there by his father-in-law, John Newbery, althou... gh he may have been confined in a private madhouse before then. While in St Luke's he wrote Jubilate Agno and A Song to David, the poems considered to be his greatest works. Although many of his contemporaries agreed that Smart was "mad," accounts of his condition and its ramifications varied, and some felt that he had been committed unfairly.Smart was diagnosed as "incurable" while at St Lukes, and when they ran out of funds for his care he was moved to Mr. Potter's asylum. All that is known of his years of confinement is that he wrote poetry. Smart's isolation led him to abandon the poetic genres of the 18th century that had marked his earlier work and to write religious poetry such as Jubilate Agno. His asylum poetry reveals a desire for "unmediated revelation", and it is possible that the self-evaluation found in his poetry represents an expression of evangelical Christianity   more
0 votes
0 comments
9

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is the common name for a group of significantly debilitating medical conditions characterized by persistent fatigue and other specific symptoms that lasts for a minimum of six months in adults. The fatigue is not due to exer... tion, not significantly relieved by rest, and is not caused by other medical conditions. CFS may also be referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis, post-viral fatigue syndrome, chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome, or by several other terms. Biological, genetic, infectious and psychological mechanisms have been proposed, but the etiology of CFS is not understood and it may have multiple causes.Symptoms of CFS include malaise after exertion; unrefreshing sleep, widespread muscle and joint pain, sore throat, headaches of a type not previously experienced, cognitive difficulties, chronic and severe mental and physical exhaustion, and other characteristic symptoms in a previously healthy and active person   more
0 votes
0 comments
10

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a pelvic pain condition in men, and should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and acute bacterial prostatitis... . This condition was formerly known as prostatodynia   more
0 votes
0 comments
11

Cluster headache

Cluster headache is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye. There are often accompanying autonomic symptoms during the headache such as eye watering, nasal congestion an... d swelling around the eye, typically confined to the side of the head with the pain.Cluster headache belongs to a group of primary headache disorders, classified as the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias or. Cluster Headache is named after the demonstrated grouping of headache attacks occurring together. Individuals typically experience repeated attacks of excruciatingly severe unilateral headache pain. Cluster Headache attacks often occur periodically; spontaneous remissions may interrupt active periods of pain, though about 10–15% of chronic CH never remit. The cause of Cluster Headache has not been identified.While there is no known cure, cluster headaches can sometimes be prevented and acute attacks treated. Recommended treatments for acute attacks include oxygen or a fast acting triptan. Primary recommended prevention is verapamil   more
0 votes
0 comments
12

Complex regional pain syndrome

Complex regional pain syndrome formerly reflex sympathetic dystrophy, "causalgia", or reflex neurovascular dystrophy is an amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome. It is a chronic systemic disease characterized by severe pain, swelling, and changes ... in the skin. CRPS is expected to worsen over time. It often initially affects an arm or a leg and often spreads throughout the body; 92% of patients have reported experiencing its spread, and 35% of patients report symptoms throughout their whole body.Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a multifactorial disorder with clinical features of neurogenic inflammation, nociceptive sensitisation, vasomotor dysfunction and maladaptive neuroplasticity; CRPS is the result of an "aberrant [inappropriate] response to tissue injury". Treatment is complicated, involving drugs, physical therapy, psychologic treatments, and neuromodulation and is usually unsatisfactory, especially if begun late.CRPS is associated with dysregulation of the central nervous system and autonomic nervous system resulting in multiple functional loss, impairment, and disability   more
0 votes
0 comments
13

Copenhagen disease

Copenhagen disease, sometimes known as Copenhagen Syndrome, refers to progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion, a rare childhood disease of unknown aetiology.It affects the lower back, as can be seen on MRI scans. It is characterised by ... a lack of disc height of the vertebrae   more
0 votes
0 comments
14

Multiple chemical sensitivity

Multiple chemical sensitivity is a chronic medical condition characterized by symptoms that the affected person attributes to low-level chemical exposure. Commonly attributed substances include scented products, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fabri... cs, smoke, petroleum products, and paint fumes. Symptoms are often vague and non-specific, such as nausea, fatigue, dizziness and headaches, but also commonly include inflammation of skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract and airways.The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences defines MCS as a "chronic, recurring disease caused by a person's inability to tolerate an environmental chemical or class of foreign chemicals".MCS is not recognized as an organic, chemical-caused illness by the World Health Organization, American Medical Association, and other organizations. Blinded clinical trials have shown MCS patients react as often and as strongly to placebos as they do to chemical stimuli; existence and severity of symptoms is related to perception that a chemical stimulus is present. Depression, anxiety, somatoform disorder, and similar mental health conditions are commonly associated with reports of MCS   more
0 votes
0 comments
15

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields is a descriptive term for symptoms purportedly caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields. Other terms for IEI-EMF include electromagnetic hypersensitivity, electrohypersens... itivity, electro-sensitivity, and electrical sensitivity.Although the thermal effects of electromagnetic fields on the body are established, self-described sufferers of electromagnetic hypersensitivity report responding to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields at intensities well below the limits permitted by international radiation safety standards.The reported symptoms of EHS include headache, fatigue, stress, sleep disturbances, skin symptoms like prickling, burning sensations and rashes, pain and ache in muscles and many other health problems. Whatever their cause, EHS symptoms are a real and sometimes disabling problem for the affected person. However, there is no scientific basis to link EHS symptoms to electromagnetic field exposure   more
0 votes
0 comments
16

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness", it was first described in 1917 by the neurologist Constantin von Economo and the pathologist Jean-René Cruchet. The disease attacks ... the brain, leaving some victims in a statue-like condition, speechless and motionless. Between 1915 and 1926, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread around the world; no recurrence of the epidemic has since been reported, though isolated cases continue to occur   more
0 votes
0 comments
17

Henoch–Schönlein purpura

Henoch–Schönlein purpura is a disease of the skin and other organs that most commonly affects children. In the skin, the disease causes palpable purpura; often with joint and abdominal pain. With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amou... nts of blood and protein in the urine, but this usually goes unnoticed; in a small proportion of cases, the kidney involvement proceeds to chronic kidney disease. HSP is often preceded by an infection, such as a throat infection.HSP is a systemic vasculitis and is characterized by deposition of immune complexes containing the antibody IgA; the exact cause for this phenomenon is unknown. It usually resolves within several weeks and requires no treatment apart from symptom control, but may relapse in a third of the cases and cause irreversible kidney damage in about one in a hundred cases   more
0 votes
0 comments
18

Granuloma annulare

Granuloma annulare is a fairly rare, chronic dermatological autoimmune condition which presents as reddish bumps on the skin arranged in a circle or ring. The rings are caused by an autoimmune reaction that causes over-productive leukocytosis, an ov... er abundant production of white blood cells. These WBCs do not flow freely through the blood but instead clump together and can not effectively move through thin capillaries, rising to just underneath the surface of the patient's skin, resulting in the characteristic rings. It can initially occur at any age and is significantly more common in females   more
0 votes
0 comments
19

Idiopathic granulomatous hepatitis

Idiopathic Granulomatous Hepatitis is a rare medical condition characterised by granulomas in the liver, recurrent fever, myalgia, and fatigue. The condition is not a true hepatitis, and some experts believe it is a variant of sarcoidosis.
0 votes
0 comments
20

Hallermann–Streiff syndrome

Hallermann–Streiff syndrome is a congenital disorder that affects growth, cranial development, hair growth and dental development.There are fewer than 200 people with the syndrome worldwide. An organisation supporting people with the Hallermann–Stre... iff syndrome is the Germany based "Schattenkinder e.V.   more
0 votes
0 comments
21

Interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis, or bladder pain syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the submucosal and muscular layers of the bladder. The cause of IC/BPS is currently unknown and the condition is regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion. IC/BPS may...  be associated with urinary urgency, urinary frequency, waking at night to urinate, and sterile urine cultures. Those with interstitial cystitis may have symptoms that overlap with other urinary bladder disorders such as: urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethritis, urethral syndrome, and prostatitis. IC/BPS can result in a quality of life comparable to that of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic cancer pain, or a patient on kidney dialysis   more
0 votes
0 comments
22

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease, also known as Kawasaki syndrome, lymph node syndrome, and mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is an immune disease in which the medium-sized blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed. It is largely seen in children under fiv... e years of age. It affects many organ systems, mainly those including the blood vessels, skin, mucous membranes, and lymph nodes. Its rarest but most serious effect is on the heart, where it can cause fatal coronary artery aneurysms in untreated children. Without treatment, mortality may approach 1%, usually within six weeks of onset. With treatment, the mortality rate is 0.17% in the U.S.Often, a pre-existing viral infection may play a role in its pathogenesis. The skin, the conjunctivae of the eyes, and the mucus membranes of the mouth become red and inflamed. Swelling of the hands and feet is often seen and lymph nodes in the neck are often enlarged. A recurrent fever, often 37.8°C or higher, is characteristic of the acute phase of the disease. In untreated children, the fever lasts about 10 days but may range from five to 25 days. The disorder was first described in 1967 by Tomisaku Kawasaki in Japan   more
0 votes
0 comments
23

Cronkhite–Canada syndrome

Cronkhite–Canada syndrome is a rare syndrome characterised by multiple polyps of the digestive tract. It is sporadic, and it is currently considered acquired and idiopathic.About two-thirds of patients are of Japanese descent and the male to female ... ratio is 2:1.It was characterized in 1955   more
0 votes
0 comments
24

Geographic tongue

Geographic tongue, is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface. It is a common condition, affecting approximately 2–3% of the general population. It is characterized by areas of smooth, red depapi... llation which migrate over time. The name comes from the map-like appearance of the tongue, with the patches resembling the islands of an archipelago. The cause is unknown, but the condition is entirely benign, and there is no curative treatment. Uncommonly, geographic tongue may cause a burning sensation on the tongue, for which various treatments have been described with little formal evidence of efficacy   more
0 votes
0 comments
25

Dancing mania

Dancing mania was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time. The mania affected men, women, and children, who d... anced until they collapsed from exhaustion. One of the first major outbreaks was in Aachen, Germany, in 1374, and it quickly spread throughout Europe; one particularly notable outbreak occurred in Strasbourg in 1518.Affecting thousands of people across several centuries, dancing mania was not an isolated event, and was well documented in contemporary reports. It was nevertheless poorly understood, and remedies were based on guesswork. Generally, musicians accompanied dancers, to help ward off the mania, but this tactic sometimes backfired by encouraging more to join in. There is no consensus among modern-day scholars as to the cause of dancing mania.The several theories proposed range from religious cults being behind the processions to people dancing to relieve themselves of stress and put the poverty of the period out of their minds   more
0 votes
0 comments
26

Exploding head syndrome

Exploding head syndrome is a form of hypnagogic auditory hallucination and is a rare and relatively undocumented parasomnia event in which the subject experiences a loud bang in their head similar to a bomb exploding, a gun going off, a clash of cym... bals, ringing, an earthquake, or any other form of loud, indecipherable noise that seems to originate from inside the head.This noise usually happens at the onset of sleep or within an hour or two of falling asleep, but is not necessarily the result of a dream. An episode can last from a few seconds to a couple of minutes. Most episodes occur just after falling asleep or just prior to waking up, and are not associated with occurring in any certain sleep stage. EHS is an uncommon, usually nocturnal parasomnia that arises from the transition between different sleep stages. Although the sound is perceived as extremely loud, it is usually not accompanied by pain. Attacks appear to change in number over time, with several attacks happening in a space of days or weeks, followed by months of remission. Sufferers often feel a sense of fear and anxiety before and after an attack, accompanied by elevated heart rate   more
0 votes
0 comments
27

Cyclic vomiting syndrome

Cyclic vomiting syndrome or cyclical vomiting syndrome is a chronic functional condition of unknown etiology characterised by recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting and sometimes abdominal pain, headaches or migraines. CVS typically develops ... during childhood, usually between ages 3 and 7; although it often remits during adolescence, it can persist into adult life   more
0 votes
0 comments
28

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome or spastic colon is a symptom-based diagnosis. It is characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits. Diarrhea or constipation may predominate, or they may alternate.As a functio... nal gastrointestinal disorder, IBS has no known organic cause. Onset of IBS is more likely to occur after an infection, or a stressful life event, but varies little with age. The most common theory is that IBS is a disorder of the interaction between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. For at least some individuals, abnormalities in the gut flora occur, and it has been theorised that these abnormalities result in inflammation and altered bowel function.A diagnosis of IBS may be made on the basis of symptoms, in the absence of worrisome features such as age of onset greater than 50 years, weight loss, bloody stool, signs of infection or colitis, or family history of inflammatory bowel disease. Routine testing yield no abnormalities, although the bowels may be more sensitive to certain stimuli, such as balloon insufflation testing   more
0 votes
0 comments
29

Heavy legs

Heavy legs is an alleged medical condition, described as an "unpleasant sensation of pain and heaviness" in the lower limbs. It is recognised primarily in France, and to a lesser extent elsewhere.Due to the limited recognition it has received, and b... ecause of its proliferation in the media and by the alternative health community, many medical practitioners believe it is a sign of hypochondriasis.The cause may be venous insufficiency or peripheral arterial disease.Remedies may include drinking plenty of tea, essential oil massages and walking in the sea; or alternatively sleeping with the legs elevated, wearing compression products like support stockings and possibly taking diuretics.It was described by BBC reporter Emma Jane Kirby as "a curiously French complaint ... The illness you can only get in health-conscious France.   more
0 votes
0 comments
30

Fever of unknown origin

Fever of unknown origin, pyrexia of unknown origin or febris e causa ignota refers to a condition in which the patient has an elevated temperature but despite investigations by a physician no explanation has been found.If the cause is found it is us... ually a diagnosis of exclusion, that is, by eliminating all possibilities until only one explanation remains, and taking this as the correct one   more
0 votes
0 comments
31

Fields' disease

Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields. Fields' disease is a neuromuscular disease, causing muscular deg... eneration   more
0 votes
0 comments
32

Gluten-sensitive idiopathic neuropathies

Gluten neuropathy is an apparently sporadic idiopathic neuropathy in the absence of an alternative etiology and where there is serological evidence of gluten sensitivity.
0 votes
0 comments
33

Floating-Harbor syndrome

Floating-Harbor syndrome, also known as Pelletier-Leisti syndrome, is a rare disease with fewer than 50 cases described in the literature. It is usually diagnosed in early childhood and is characterized by the triad of proportionate short stature wi... th delayed bone age, characteristic facial appearance, and delayed speech development. Although its cause is unknown, it is thought to result from genetic mutation, and diagnosis is established by the presence of a heterozygous SRCAP mutation in those with clinical findings of FHS   more
0 votes
0 comments
34

Danubian endemic familial nephropathy

Danubian endemic familial nephropathy — also called Balkan endemic nephropathy — is a form of interstitial nephritis. It was first identified in the 1920s among several small, discrete communities along the Danube River and its major tributaries, in...  the modern countries of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria   more
0 votes
0 comments
35

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is characterised by chronic widespread pain and allodynia. Fibromyalgia symptoms are not restricted to pain, leading to the use of the alternative term fibromyalgia syndrome for the condition. Other symptoms include debilitating fatigue... , sleep disturbance, and joint stiffness. Some people also report difficulty with swallowing, bowel and bladder abnormalities, numbness and tingling, and cognitive dysfunction. Fibromyalgia is frequently associated with psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety and stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Not all people with fibromyalgia experience all associated symptoms.Its exact cause is unknown but is believed to involve psychological, genetic, neurobiological and environmental factors. There is evidence that environmental factors and certain genes increase the risk of developing fibromyalgia – these same genes are also associated with other functional somatic syndromes and major depressive disorder   more
0 votes
0 comments
36

Lichen sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is a disease of unknown cause that results in white patches on the skin, which may cause scarring on and around genital skin. There is a biomodal age distribution in the incidence of LS. It occurs in girls with an average age of dia... gnosis of 7.6 years in girls and 60 years old in women. The average age of diagnosis in boys is 9-11 years old.Several risk factors have been proposed, including autoimmune diseases, infections and genetic predisposition. There is evidence that LS can be associated with thyroid disease   more
0 votes
0 comments
37

Diagnosis of schizophrenia (controversy)

The diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on criteria in either the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version DSM-IV-TR, or the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classificatio... n of Diseases and Related Health Problems, the ICD-10. These criteria use the self-reported experiences of the person and reported abnormalities in behavior, followed by a clinical assessment by a mental health professional. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia occur along a continuum in the population and must reach a certain severity before a diagnosis is made   more
0 votes
0 comments
38

Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath

Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, also known as giant-cell synovioma and localized nodular tenosynovitis, is a firm lesion, measuring 1 to 3 cm in diameter, and is most commonly attached to the tendons of the fingers, hands, and wrists, with a ... predilection for the flexor surfaces. Giant-cell tumor of tendon sheaths most often affect the wrist and fingers of males and females from the ages of 20-50 . These tumors are typically painless and can cause cortical erosion. Surgery to remove the tumor is a common treatment, though the tumors tend to recur   more
0 votes
0 comments
39

Mortimer's disease

Mortimer's disease is a skin disease characterized by red blotchy patterns appearing all over the face and hands, and spreading through the body in an almost symmetrical pattern. The fact that there are no ulcers, and an absence of crust, indicate t... hat this is a different entity than lupus vulgaris. The disease was originally documented by Jonathan Hutchinson, and became an eponym after his patient, Mrs. Mortimer   more
0 votes
0 comments
40

Charles Darwin's health

For much of his adult life, Charles Darwin's health was repeatedly compromised by an uncommon combination of symptoms, leaving him severely debilitated for long periods of time. However, in some ways this may have helped his work, and Charles Darwin...  wrote "Even ill-health, though it has annihilated several years of my life, has saved me from the distractions of society and amusement." He consulted with more than 18 doctors, but, with the medical science of the time, the cause remained undiagnosed. He tried all available treatments, but, at best, they had only temporary success. More recently, there has been much speculation as to the nature of his illness   more
0 votes
0 comments
41

Milroy's disease

Milroy's disease is a familial disease characterized by lymphedema, commonly in the legs, caused by congenital abnormalities in the lymphatic system. Disruption of the normal drainage of lymph leads to fluid accumulation and hypertrophy of soft tiss... ues. It is also known as Milroy disease, Nonne-Milroy-Meige syndrome and hereditary lymphedema.It was named by Sir William Osler for William Milroy, an American physician, who described a case in 1892, though it was first described by Rudolf Virchow in 1863   more
0 votes
0 comments
42

Torticollis

Torticollis, also known as wry neck or loxia, is a dystonic condition defined by an abnormal, asymmetrical head or neck position, which may be due to a variety of causes. The term torticollis is derived from the Latin words tortus for twisted and co... llum for neck   more
0 votes
0 comments
43

Nodding disease

Nodding disease or nodding syndrome is a recent, little-known disease which emerged in Sudan in the 1960s. It is a mentally and physically disabling disease that only affects children, typically between the ages of 5 and 15. It is currently restrict... ed to small regions in South Sudan, Tanzania, and northern Uganda. Prior to the South Sudan outbreaks and subsequent limited spread, the disease was first described in 1962 existing in secluded mountainous regions of Tanzania, although the connection between that disease and nodding syndrome was only made recently   more
0 votes
0 comments
44

Sick building syndrome

Sick building syndrome is used to describe situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified. A 1984 World Heal... th Organization report suggested up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may be subject of complaints related to poor indoor air quality.Sick building causes are frequently pinned down to flaws in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Other causes have been attributed to contaminants produced by outgassing of some types of building materials, volatile organic compounds, molds, improper exhaust ventilation of ozone, light industrial chemicals used within, or lack of adequate fresh-air intake/air filtration   more
0 votes
0 comments
45

SAPHO syndrome

SAPHO syndrome includes a variety of inflammatory bone disorders that may be associated with skin changes. These diseases share some clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics.An entity initially known as chronic recurrent multifocal osteo... myelitis was first described in 1972. Subsequently, in 1978, several cases of CRMO were associated with blisters on the palms and soles. Since then, a number of associations between skin conditions and osteoarticular disorders have been reported under a variety of names, including sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis, pustulotic arthro-osteitis, and acne-associated spondyloarthropathy. The term SAPHO was coined in 1987 to represent this spectrum of inflammatory bone disorders that may or may not be associated with dermatologic pathology   more
0 votes
0 comments
46

Trigger finger

Trigger finger, trigger thumb, or trigger digit, is a common disorder characterized by catching, snapping or locking of the involved finger flexor tendon, associated with dysfunction and pain. A disparity in size between the flexor tendon and the su... rrounding retinacular pulley system, most commonly at the level of the first annular pulley, results in difficulty flexing or extending the finger and the “triggering” phenomenon. The label of trigger finger is used because when the finger unlocks, it pops back suddenly, as if releasing a trigger on a gun   more
0 votes
0 comments
47

Benign fasciculation syndrome

Benign fasciculation syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by fasciculation of various voluntary muscles in the body. The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most common in the eyelids, arms, legs, and feet. Even the...  tongue may be affected. The twitching may be occasional or may go on nearly continuously. Usually intentional movement of the involved muscle causes the fasciculations to cease immediately, but they may return once the muscle is at rest again   more
0 votes
0 comments
48

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak syndrome is a medical condition in which the cerebrospinal fluid held in and around a human brain and spinal cord leaks out of the surrounding protective sac, the dura, for no apparent reason. The dura, a tough, ... inflexible tissue, is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges, the system of meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord..A spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak is one of several types of cerebrospinal fluid leaks and occurs due to the presence of one or more holes in the dura. A spontaneous CSF leak, as opposed to traumatically caused CSF leaks, arises idiopathically. A loss of CSF greater than its rate of production leads to a decreased volume inside the skull known as intracranial hypotension. A CSF leak is most often characterized by a severe and disabling headache and a spectrum of various symptoms that occur as a result of intracerebral hemorrhage. These symptoms can include: dizziness, nausea, fatigue, a metallic taste in the mouth, myoclonus, tinnitus, tingling in the limbs, and facial weakness among others. A CT scan can identify the site of a cerebrospinal fluid leakage   more
0 votes
0 comments
49

Tropical sprue

Tropical sprue is a malabsorption disease commonly found in the tropical regions, marked with abnormal flattening of the villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine. It differs significantly from coeliac sprue. It may be a more sever... e form of environmental enteropathy   more
0 votes
0 comments
50

Pigmented villonodular synovitis

Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a joint disease characterized by inflammation and overgrowth of the joint lining. It usually affects the hip or knee. It can also occur in the shoulder, ankle, elbow, hand or foot. In PVNS the lining of the joint,...  called the synovium, becomes swollen and grows. This growth harms the bone next to the joint. The lining also makes extra fluid that can cause swelling and make movement painful. PVNS is idiopathic, it doesn't seem to run in families or be caused by certain jobs or activities. Surgery can help but, even with treatment, PVNS comes back about half the time. If the pain remains then radiation therapy may help. In the worst cases the joint must be replaced   more
0 votes
0 comments
51

Picardy sweat

The Picardy sweat was an infectious disease of unknown etiology. It appeared in the northern French province of Picardy in 1718. All together, 194 epidemics of the Picardy sweat were recorded. The last occurrence took place in 1874. It was named sue... tte des Picards in France, and picard'scher Schweiß or picard'sches Schweissfieber in Germany. There were several longer descriptions of the disease.The disease was similar to the English sweat but differed in some symptoms and in its course and mortality rate. Some of the symptoms were high fever, rash, and bleeding from the nose. Many victims died within two days   more
0 votes
0 comments
52

Sjögren's syndrome

Sjögren's syndrome or Sjögren syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body's white blood cells destroy the exocrine glands, specifically the salivary and lacrimal glands, that produce saliva and tears, respectively. The immune-mediated...  attack on the salivary and lacrimal glands leads to the development of xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca, which takes place in association with lymphocytic infiltration of the glands. That inflammatory process eventually severely damages or destroys the glands.Sjögren’s syndrome is usually classified by a clinician as either 'primary' or 'secondary'. Primary Sjögren’s syndrome occurs by itself and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome occurs when another connective tissue disease is present. However, this classification does not always correlate with the severity of symptoms or complications. Primary and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome patients can all experience the same level of discomfort, complications, and seriousness of their disease.The abbreviation SS is often used for Sjögren's syndrome, although it is not specific to this term and has other medical expansions   more
0 votes
0 comments
53

Sudden infant death syndrome

Sudden infant death syndrome also known as cot death or crib death is the sudden death of an infant that is not predicted by medical history and remains unexplained after a thorough forensic autopsy and detailed death scene investigation. Infants ar... e at the highest risk for SIDS during sleep. Typically the infant is found dead after having been put to bed, and exhibits no signs of having struggled.The cause of SIDS is unknown, but some characteristics associated with the syndrome have been identified and appear to interact with other characteristics: A triple-risk model states that SIDS occurs when an infant with an underlying, biological vulnerability who is at a critical developmental age is exposed to an external trigger. SIDS prevention strategies include: putting the infant to sleep on their back, a firm mattress separate from but close to caregivers, no loose bedding, a relatively cool sleeping environment, using a pacifier, and avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke. The "Safe to Sleep" campaign is considered a significant public health success, credited with leading to a measurable reduction in SIDS rates   more
0 votes
0 comments
54

Sweating sickness

Sweating sickness, also known as "English sweating sickness" or "English sweate", was a mysterious and highly virulent disease that struck England, and later continental Europe, in a series of epidemics beginning in 1485. The last outbreak occurred ... in 1551, after which the disease apparently vanished. The onset of symptoms was dramatic and sudden, with death often occurring within hours. Though its cause remains unknown, it has been suggested that an as yet unknown species of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was responsible for the outbreak   more
0 votes
0 comments
55

Myofascial pain syndrome

Myofascial pain syndrome, also known as chronic myofascial pain, is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain caused by multiple trigger points and fascial constrictions. Characteristic features of a myofascial trigger point include: focal point tend... erness, reproduction of pain upon trigger point palpation, hardening of the muscle upon trigger point palpation, pseudo-weakness of the involved muscle, referred pain, and limited range of motion following approximately 5 seconds of sustained trigger point pressure   more
0 votes
0 comments
56

Tarantism

Tarantism is a form of hysteric behaviour, popularly believed to result from the bite of a kind of wolf spider called a "tarantula". A better candidate, is Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, commonly known as the Mediterranean black widow or steppe spide... r, although no link between such bites and the behaviour of tarantism has ever been demonstrated. However, the term historically is used to refer to a dancing mania characteristic of Southern Italy and which likely had little to do with spider bites   more
0 votes
0 comments
57

Type 3 diabetes

Type 3 Diabetes is the proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain.Other instances of the term:A large number of members of the diabetes community use the term colloquially to refer to a caregiver or family ... member whose life has been unalterably changed by living with or near someone with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.Some members of the diabetes community use the term to refer to patients with Type 1 diabetes who experience weight related insulin resistance and other symptoms of Type 2 diabetes. However, more commonly the term for this used among patients is Type 1.5   more
0 votes
0 comments
58

What?

Can you even medicine?
0 votes
0 comments
59

Synovial osteochondromatosis

Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare disease that creates a benign change or proliferation in the synovium or joint-lining tissue, which changes to form bone-forming cartilage. In most occurrences, there is only one joint affected, either the knee... , the hip, or the elbow. Rarely involves the TMJ.The etiology or cause is unknown.In this condition, cartilaginous metaplasia takes place within the synovial membrane of the joint. Metaplastic synovium organizes into nodules. With minor trauma, nodules are shed as small bodies into the joint space. In some patients, the disease process may involve tendon sheaths and bursal sacs.Cartilaginous intra-articular bodies float freely within the synovial fluid, which they require for nutrition and growth. Progressive enlargement and ossification occur with time. If they remain free, they continue to grow larger and more calcified. In severe cases, they may occupy the entire joint space or penetrate to adjacent tissues. Also, they can deposit in the synovial lining, reestablish a blood supply, and become replaced by bone. On occasion, synovial reattachment can lead to complete reabsorption of the cartilage fragment   more
0 votes
0 comments
60

Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis, also called sarcoid, is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that can form as nodules in multiple organs. The granulomas are most often located in the lungs or its associated lymph nodes, but any organ can be a... ffected. Sarcoidosis seems to be caused by an immune reaction to an infection or some other trigger that continues even after the initial infection or other antigen is cleared from the body. In most cases it clears up by itself without any medical intervention, but some cases go on to affect the person long-term or become life-threatening and require medical intervention, most often with medications. The average mortality rate is less than 5% in untreated cases.Treatment is usually designed to help relieve the symptoms and thus does not directly alter the course of the disease. This treatment usually consists of drugs like ibuprofen or aspirin. In cases where the condition develops to the point that it has a progressive and/or life-threatening course, the treatment is most often steroid treatment with prednisone or prednisolone   more
0 votes
0 comments
61

Posterior cortical atrophy

Posterior cortical atrophy, also called Benson's syndrome, is a form of dementia which is usually considered an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease. The disease causes atrophy of the back part of the cerebral cortex, resulting in the progressive...  disruption of complex visual processing. PCA was first described by D. Frank Benson in 1988.In rare cases, PCA "can also be due to other diseases including dementia with Lewy bodies and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease."PCA usually affects people at an earlier age than typical cases of Alzheimer's disease, with initial symptoms often experienced in people in their mid-fifties or early sixties. This was the case with writer Terry Pratchett, who went public in 2007 about being diagnosed with PCA. In The Mind's Eye, neurologist Oliver Sacks examines the case of a noted concert pianist, Lilian Kallir, who suffered from PCA   more
0 votes
0 comments
62

Trichodynia

Trichodynia is a condition where the patient experiences a painful sensation on their scalp. The pain sometimes is described as burning. Often there is an underlying psychosomatic cause, such as stress, depression or anxiety.Only a few studies have ... been conducted on this condition. A theory behind the condition is that nerves innervating scalp hair follicles send pain messages back to the brain when the follicle no longer has a hair in it, in a similar way to phantom limb pain. Another theory is that people who have this condition have super-sensitive nerves in their scalp.A possible treatment is to halt hair loss in the patient, however it is important to understand and address any underlying psychologic comorbity   more
0 votes
0 comments
63

Prurigo nodularis

Prurigo nodularis is a skin disease characterised by pruritic nodules which usually appear on the arms or legs. Patients often present with multiple excoriated lesions caused by scratching. PN is also known as Hyde prurigo nodularis, Picker's nodule... s, atypical nodular form of neurodermatitis circumscripta, lichen corneus obtusus.Lichen simplex chronicus is a distinct clinical entity   more
0 votes
0 comments
64

Stiff person syndrome

Stiff person syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear etiology characterized by progressive rigidity and stiffness. The stiffness primarily affects the truncal muscles and is superimposed by spasms, resulting in postural deformities. Chroni... c pain, impaired mobility, and lumbar hyperlordosis are common symptoms. Spasms can be violent and unpredictable, sometimes breaking bones. Patients become very sensitive to touch and sound, which can sometimes trigger spasms. The exact mechanism of the condition is unclear. It has been established that SPS patients generally have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, which seldom occur in the general population. The antibodies are often thought to be the cause of the condition.SPS is difficult to diagnose because there is no specific laboratory test that confirms its presence. Cerebrospinal fluid and Electromyography tests can help confirm the condition's presence by finding antibodies against GAD and involuntary motor unit firing. Early recognition and treatment slow the disease's progression, but a majority of patients eventually are unable to function independently   more
0 votes
0 comments
65

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a skin rash. It is benign but may inflict substantial discomfort in certain cases. Classically, it begins with a single "herald patch" lesion, followed in 1 or 2 weeks by a generalized body rash lasting up to 12 weeks, however us... ually around 6 - 8   more
0 votes
0 comments
66

2007 Peruvian meteorite illness

The Carancas impact event refers to the fall of the Carancas chondritic meteorite on September 15, 2007, near the village of Carancas in Peru, close to the Bolivian border and Lake Titicaca. The impact created a crater and scorched earth around its ... location. A local official, Marco Limache, said that “boiling water started coming out of the crater, and particles of rock and cinders were found nearby”, as “fetid, noxious” gases spewed from the crater. Surface impact occurred above 3,800 m.After the impact, villagers who had approached the impact site grew sick from a then-unexplained illness, with a wide array of symptoms. Two days later, Peruvian scientists confirmed that there had indeed been a meteorite strike, quieting widespread speculation that it may have been a geophysical rather than a celestial event. At that point, no further information on the cause of the mystery illness was known. The ground water in the local area is known to contain arsenic compounds, and the illness is now believed to have been caused by arsenic poisoning incurred when residents of the area inhaled the vapor of the boiling arsenic-contaminated water   more
0 votes
0 comments
67

Acrocyanosis

Acrocyanosis is persistent blue or cyanotic discoloration of the extremities, most commonly occurring in the hands, although it also occurs in the feet and distal parts of face. Although described over 100 years ago and not uncommon in practice, the...  nature of this phenomenon is still uncertain. The very term "acrocyanosis" is often applied inappropriately in cases when blue discoloration of the hands, feet, or parts of the face is noted. The principal form of acrocyanosis is that of a benign cosmetic condition, sometimes caused by a relatively benign neurohormonal disorder. Regardless of its cause, the benign form typically does not require medical treatment. A medical emergency would ensue if the extremities experience prolonged periods of exposure to the cold, particularly in children and patients with poor general health. However, frostbite differs from acrocyanosis because pain often accompanies the former condition, while the latter is very rarely associated with pain   more
0 votes
0 comments
Leave a comment...
(Maximum 900 words)
PetersSmith says2014-12-13T00:15:09.8888183-06:00
As in, which one do you think study would yield greater benefits, including or possibly not including a cure.
Comrade_Silly_Otter says2014-12-13T12:21:11.8844721-06:00
I hope you had fun looking up all those images. :P

Freebase Icon   Portions of this page are reproduced from or are modifications based on work created and shared by Google and used according to terms described in the Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License.