22 Total Votes


Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C. ... The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale.Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library.Like other dynamic languages, Python is often used as a scripting language, but is also used in a wide range of non-scripting contexts. Using third-party tools, Python code can be packaged into standalone executable programs. Python interpreters are available for many operating systems.CPython, the reference implementation of Python, is free and open source software and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of its alternative implementations. CPython is managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation   more
10 votes


Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run any... where", meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine regardless of computer architecture. Java is, as of 2012, one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were developed by Sun from 1991 and first released in 1995. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java and GNU Classpath   more
4 votes


C# is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, procedural, generic, object-oriented, and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiati... ve and later approved as a standard by Ecma and ISO. C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 5.0, which was released on August 15, 2012   more
3 votes


C++ is a programming language that is general purpose, statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm and compiled. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level language features. Developed by Bjarne S... troustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, C++ was originally named C with Classes, adding object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. The language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator.C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application domains include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games. Several groups provide both free and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the GNU Project, LLVM, Microsoft and Intel. C++ has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C# and Java.C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis   more
2 votes


2 votes


JavaScript is an interpreted computer programming language. As part of web browsers, implementations allow client-side scripts to interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that is display... ed. It has also become common in server-side programming, game development and the creation of desktop applications.JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting language with dynamic typing and has first-class functions. Its syntax was influenced by C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme programming languages. It is a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.JavaScript's use in applications outside of web pages—for example, in PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets—is also significant. Newer and faster JavaScript VMs and frameworks built upon them have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side web applications.JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used as part of a web browser. This enables programmatic access to computational objects within a host environment   more
1 vote


PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP is now installed on more than 244 million websites and 2.1 million web servers. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in...  1995, the reference implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group. While PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, it now stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, a recursive acronym.PHP code is interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the resulting web page: PHP commands can be embedded directly into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. It has also evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.PHP is free software released under the PHP License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License due to restrictions on the usage of the term PHP. PHP can be deployed on most web servers and also as a standalone shell on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge   more
0 votes


Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.Though Perl is not officially an acronym, there are various backronyms in use, such as: Practical Ext... raction and Reporting Language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The latest major stable revision of Perl 5 is 5.18, released in May 2013. Perl 6, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually evolved into a separate language. Both languages continue to be developed independently by different development teams and liberally borrow ideas from one another.The Perl languages borrow features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting, AWK, and sed. They provide powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data-length limits of many contemporary Unix commandline tools, facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl 5 gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its parsing abilities   more
0 votes

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails, often simply Rails, is an open source web application framework which runs on the Ruby programming language. It is a full-stack framework: it allows creating pages and applications that gather information from the web server, talk to ... or query the database, and render templates out of the box. As a result, Rails features a routing system that is independent of the web server.Ruby on Rails emphasizes the use of well-known software engineering patterns and principles, such as active record pattern, convention over configuration, don't repeat yourself, and model–view–controller   more
0 votes

Visual Basic .NET

Visual Basic .NET is an object-oriented computer programming language that can be viewed as an evolution of the classic Visual Basic, implemented on the .NET Framework. Microsoft currently supplies two main editions of IDEs for developing in Visual ... Basic: Microsoft Visual Studio 2012, which is commercial software and Visual Basic Express Edition 2012, which is free of charge. The command-line compiler, VBC.EXE, is installed as part of the freeware .NET Framework SDK. Mono also includes a command-line VB.NET compiler. The most recent version is VB 2012, which was released on August 15, 2012   more
0 votes


SQL is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system.Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of a data definition language and a data ma... nipulation language. The scope of SQL includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, and data access control. Although SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language, it also includes procedural elements.SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codd's relational model, as described in his influential 1970 paper "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks". Despite not entirely adhering to the relational model as described by Codd, it became the most widely used database language.SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute in 1986, and of the International Organization for Standards in 1987. Since then, the standard has been enhanced several times with added features. But code is not completely portable among different database systems, which can lead to vendor lock-in. The different makers do not perfectly follow the standard, they add extensions, and the standard is sometimes ambiguous   more
0 votes


Apache Hadoop is an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications, licensed under the Apache v2 license. It supports the running of applications on large clusters of commodity hardware. Hadoop was derived from ... Google's MapReduce and Google File System papers.The Hadoop framework transparently provides both reliability and data motion to applications. Hadoop implements a computational paradigm named MapReduce, where the application is divided into many small fragments of work, each of which may be executed or re-executed on any node in the cluster. In addition, it provides a distributed file system that stores data on the compute nodes, providing very high aggregate bandwidth across the cluster. Both map/reduce and the distributed file system are designed so that node failures are automatically handled by the framework. It enables applications to work with thousands of computation-independent computers and petabytes of data. The entire Apache Hadoop “platform” is now commonly considered to consist of the Hadoop kernel, MapReduce and Hadoop Distributed File System, as well as a number of related projects – including Apache Hive, Apache HBase, and others   more
0 votes
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