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35 Total Votes
1

Spanish

Spanish, also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain. Approximately 470 million people speak Spanish as a native language, making it second only to Mandarin in terms of its number of native speakers wo... rldwide. There are an estimated 548 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language, including speakers with limited competence and 20 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, and the Union of South American Nations, among many other international organizations.Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of common Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. It was first documented in central-northern Iberia in the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia   more
9 votes
1 comment
2

French

French is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family. It descended from the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. Its closest relatives are the ... other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole.French is the second-most widespread language worldwide after English, as only these two languages are spoken on all five continents. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which form la francophonie, the community of French-speaking countries   more
8 votes
1 comment
3

Other

8 votes
7 comments
4

German

German is a West Germanic language. It derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A number of words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer from French and English. Widely spoken languages which...  are most similar to German include Luxembourgish, Dutch, the Frisian languages, English and the Scandinavian languages.German is written using the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with umlauts and the letter ß.German is spoken natively by about 100 million people, making it the most widely spoken native language in the European Union and one of the major languages of the world.German is a pluricentric language, with multiple countries having their own standardised variants as well as many dialects. There is also one variant referred to as Standard German.German is the only official language of Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein; one of the official languages of Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium; and a recognised minor language in many other countries, such as Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, Namibia, and Poland   more
5 votes
0 comments
5

Portuguese

Portuguese is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in Macau, Equatorial Guinea and East Timor. As the...  result of expansion during colonial times, Portuguese speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India, in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka, and in Malacca in Malaysia.Portuguese is a part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia. With approximately 215 to 220 million native speakers and 260 million total speakers, Portuguese is usually listed as the sixth most spoken language in the world, the third most spoken European language and the major language of the Southern Hemisphere. It is also the most spoken language in South America and the second most spoken in Latin America, after Spanish, as well as an official language of the European Union and Mercosul   more
2 votes
1 comment
6

Hindi

Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindustani is the native language of most people living in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Cha... ndigarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the official languages of India.As of 2009, the best figure Ethnologue could find for speakers of actual Hindustani Hindi was 180 million in 1991. In the 2001 Indian census, 258 million people in India reported Hindi to be their native language, which not only includes Hindu speakers of Hindustani, but also people who identify as native speakers of related languages who consider their speech to be a dialect of Hindi, the Hindi belt   more
1 vote
1 comment
7

Japanese

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, whose relation to other language groups, particularly to Korean and the su... ggested Altaic language family, is debated.Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period, Chinese had a considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese. Late Middle Japanese saw changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, as well as the first appearance of European loanwords. The standard dialect moved from the Kansai region to the Edo region in the Early Modern Japanese period. Following the end in 1853 of Japan's self-imposed isolation, the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly. English loanwords in particular have become frequent, and Japanese words from English roots have proliferated   more
1 vote
0 comments
8

Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is also referred to as the "northern dialect". When the Mandarin group is tak... en as one language, as is often done in academic literature, it has more native speakers than any other language.A northeastern-dialect speaker and a southwestern-dialect speaker may have difficulty communicating except through the standard language. Nonetheless, there is much less variation across the huge Mandarin area than between the non-Mandarin varieties of southeast China. This is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the relatively recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas.For most of Chinese history, the capital has been within the Mandarin area, making these dialects very influential. Some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language   more
1 vote
0 comments
9

Persian

Persian is the predominant modern version of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, and some other regions which histor... ically came under Persian influence. The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanid Persia, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Persian is a pluricentric language and its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Persian is also so called due to its origin from the capital of the Achaemenid empire, Persis hence the name Persian.There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. For centuries Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia by the various empires based in the regions   more
0 votes
0 comments
10

Turkish

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia. Speakers are located predominantly ... in Turkey, with smaller groups in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia.The roots of the language can be traced to the Altay region in the Eurasian steppes, with the first known written records dating back nearly 1,300 years. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script was replaced with a Latin alphabet.The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is subject–object–verb. Turkish has no noun classes or grammatical gender. Turkish has a strong T–V distinction and usage of honorifics   more
0 votes
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11

Polish

Polish is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages. Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish ... minorities in other countries. It is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script.Although the Austrian, German and Russian administrations exerted much pressure on the Polish nation following the Partitions of Poland, which resulted in attempts to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has regardless developed over the centuries and the language currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group. It is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and just ahead of Ukrainian, which comes third   more
0 votes
0 comments
12

Dutch

Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of most of the population of the Netherlands, and about sixty percent of the populations of Belgium and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in th... e European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second language for another 5 million people.Dutch also holds official status in the Caribbean island nations of Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, whereas Dutch or dialects assigned to it continue to be spoken, in parts of France and Germany, and to a lesser extent, in Indonesia, and up to half a million native Dutch speakers may be living in the United States, Canada, and Australia. The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have been standardised into Afrikaans, a partially mutually intelligible daughter language which today is spoken by an estimated total of 15 to 23 million people in South Africa and Namibia.Dutch is closely related to German and English and is said to be between them   more
0 votes
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13

Afrikaans

Afrikaans or is one of the official languages of South Africa. It is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe. It is an offshoot of several Dutch dialects spoken by the mainly Dutch sett... lers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop independently in the course of the 18th century. Hence, historically, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch".Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including Portuguese, the Bantu languages, Malay, and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch often lie in the more analytic morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, and a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken mother tongue in the country   more
0 votes
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14

Arabic

Arabic is a name for what are traditionally considered the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century. This includes both the literary language and varieties of Arabic spoken in a wide arc of territory, stretching across the Mid... dle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. Arabic belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family.The literary language is called Modern Standard Arabic or Literary Arabic, which is a pluricentric, fusional language. It is currently the only official form of Arabic, used in most written documents as well as in formal spoken occasions, such as lectures and news broadcasts. However, this varies from one country to the other. Moroccan Arabic was official in Morocco for some time, before the latter nation joined the Arab League.Arabic languages are Central Semitic languages, most closely related to Aramaic, Hebrew, Ugaritic and Phoenician. The standardized written Arabic is distinct from and more conservative than all of the spoken varieties, and the two exist in a state known as diglossia, used side-by-side for different societal functions   more
0 votes
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15

Yiddish

Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the pre-existing language of the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vocabulary. Yiddish is written ... with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew script.The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. In common usage, the language is called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from Hebrew and Aramaic, which are collectively termed לשון־קודש. The term "Yiddish" did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more commonly called "Jewish", especially in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation.Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today. It includes Southeastern, Mideastern, and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin   more
0 votes
0 comments
16

Italian

Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Albania, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, and ... by expatriate communities in Europe, in the Americas and in Australia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardised Italian and other regional languages.According to the Bologna statistics of the European Union, Italian is spoken as a native language by 59 million people in the EU, mainly in Italy, and as a second language by 14 million. Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million.In Switzerland, Italian is one of three official languages; it is studied and learned in all the confederation schools and spoken, as a native language, in the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Graubünden and by the Italian immigrants that are present in large numbers in German- and French-speaking cantons. It is also the official language of San Marino, as well as the primary language of the Vatican City   more
0 votes
0 comments
17

Russian

Russian is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and to a lesser extent, the other countries t... hat were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the three living members of the East Slavic languages. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onwards.It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is also the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds   more
0 votes
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18

Bulgarian

Bulgarian is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.Bulgarian, along with the closely related Macedonian language, has several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: chang... es include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article, and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system. Various evidential verb forms exist to express unwitnessed, retold, and doubtful action.Based on the 2011 census, Ethnologue estimates that Bulgarian is spoken as a native language by 6.8 million. In 1999, the World Almanac had estimated 9 million.With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Bulgarian became one of the official languages of the European Union   more
0 votes
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19

Serbian language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used chiefly by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czec... h Republic, Albania and Greece.Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian.Serbian is practically the only European standard language with complete synchronic digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets; speakers read the two scripts equally well. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. The Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830   more
0 votes
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20

Kazakh

Kazakh is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch, closely related to Nogai, and especially Karakalpak.Kazakh is an agglutinative language, and it employs vowel harmony.
0 votes
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21

Mongolian

The Mongolian language is the official language of Mongolia and best-known member of the Mongolic language family. The number of speakers across all its dialects may be 5.2 million, including the vast majority of the residents of Mongolia and many o... f the Mongolian residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In Mongolia, the Khalkha dialect, written in Cyrillic, is predominant, while in Inner Mongolia, the language is dialectally more diverse and is written in the traditional Mongolian script. In the discussion of grammar to follow, the variety of Mongolian treated is Standard Khalkha Mongolian, but much of what is to be said is also valid for vernacular Khalkha and other Mongolian dialects, especially Chakhar.Mongolian has vowel harmony and a complex syllabic structure for a Mongolic language that allows clusters of up to three consonants syllable-finally. It is a typical agglutinative language that relies on suffix chains in the verbal and nominal domains. While there is a basic word order, subject–object–predicate, ordering among noun phrases is relatively free, so grammatical roles are indicated by a system of about eight grammatical cases. There are five voices   more
0 votes
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22

Irish

Irish is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European languages family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a rather lar... ger group. Irish enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland, and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland. It is also an official language of the European Union. The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland.Irish was the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other countries, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where it gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.The fate of the language was influenced by the increasing power of the English state in Ireland. Elizabethan officials viewed the use of Irish unfavourably, as being a threat to all things English in Ireland. Its decline began under English rule in the seventeenth century   more
0 votes
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23

Catalan

Catalan is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France. It is the national and only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities...  of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community. It also has semi-official status in the city of Alghero on the Italian island of Sardinia. It is also spoken with no official recognition in parts of the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon and Murcia, and in the historic French region of Roussillon/Northern Catalonia, roughly equivalent to the department of Pyrénées-Orientales.According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia in 2008 the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanish, as a native or self-defining language. The Generalitat of Catalunya spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories.Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin around the eastern Pyrenees in the 9th century   more
0 votes
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24

Hebrew Language

Hebrew is an ancient Semitic language that was revived into modern use around the end of the Nineteenth century, with the effort initiated by Eliezar Ben-Yehuda.Ivrit can be interpreted to mean boundary crosser, because the ancient Hebrews crossed s... ocial boundaries as they organized their nation.The search for cognates in English can be amusing and revealing (behemoth, leviathan, and more)   more
0 votes
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25

Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish, and thus is ultimate... ly descended from Old Irish.The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, with the Outer Hebrides being the main stronghold of the language. The census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 had some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, a decline of 6,226. Despite this decline, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased.Gaelic is not an official language of the European Union or the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an Indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, and the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig, "with a view to securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland   more
0 votes
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26

Ukrainian

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and the principal language of Ukrainians. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.The Ukrainian language traces its origins to the Old East Slavic of ... the early medieval state of Kievan Rus'. From 1804 until the Russian Revolution, the Ukrainian language was banned from schools in the Russian Empire, of which the biggest part of Ukraine was a part at the time. It has always maintained a sufficient base in Western Ukraine, where the language was never banned, in its folklore songs, itinerant musicians, and prominent authors.The standard Ukrainian language is regulated by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, particularly by its Institute for the Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian language-information fund, and Potebnya Institute of Language Studies. Lexically, the closest to Ukrainian is Belarusian, followed by Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak and Russian. The Ukrainian language retains a degree of mutual intelligibility with Belarusian and Russian   more
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CannedBread says2015-04-26T11:02:54.9654762-05:00
I also speak some Hebrew but it is a complex language.
TBR says2015-04-26T11:28:22.8958317-05:00
So few fellow Latin (non speakers) with me. "o s t mus tis nt!" forever!

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