What political ideology do you "dislike" the most?

Posted by: PetersSmith

Don't say "none", because even the most tolerant of people have a certain political ideology that they dislike above all others.

Vote
26 Total Votes
1

Communism (general)

Communism is a socioeconomic system structured upon common ownership of the means of production and characterized by the absence of social classes, money, and the state; as well as a social, political and economic ideology and movement that aims to ... establish this social order. The movement to develop communism, in its Marxist–Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the states which claimed to follow this ideology and their enemies.Communism is most associated with Marxism, which considers itself the embodiment of scientific socialism. According to Marxism, capitalism is a historically necessary stage of society, which has led to the concentration of social classes into two major groups: proletariat - who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society - and bourgeoisie - a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the means of production. The political, social, and economic conflict between both groups, each attempting to push their interests to their logical extreme, will lead into the capture of political power by the proletariat   more
8 votes
1 comment
2

Conservatism (general)

Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of the culture and civilization. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while ... others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated with François-René de Chateaubriand in 1818, during the period of Bourbon restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues   more
6 votes
1 comment
3

Liberalism (general)

Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas such as free and fair elections... , civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade, and private property.Liberalism first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism rejected the notions, common at the time, of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings. The 17th-century philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition. Locke argued that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property and according to the social contract, governments must not violate these rights. Liberals opposed traditional conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy and the rule of law   more
3 votes
0 comments
4

Zionism

Zionism is a nationalist movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the creation of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the Land of Israel. A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity, opposes the as... similation of Jews into other societies and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority in their own nation, and to be liberated from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, and persecution that had historically occurred in the diaspora. Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in central and eastern Europe as a national revival movement, and soon after this most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and address threats to its continued existence and security. In a less common usage, the term may also refer to non-political, cultural Zionism, founded and represented most prominently by Ahad Ha'am; and political support for the State of Israel by non-Jews, as in Christian Zionism   more
3 votes
2 comments
5

Feminist theology

Feminist theology is a movement found in several religions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, and New Thought, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the g... oals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts and matriarchal religion   more
2 votes
0 comments
6

Theoconservatism

Theoconservatism (or simply theocon) is a portmanteau of "theocracy" and "conservatism" and is generally used as a political label referring to members of the Christian right, particularly those whose ideology is a synthesis of elements of American ... conservatism, conservative Christianity, and social conservatism, expressed through political means. This term first appeared in 1996 in a The New Republic article entitled "Neocon v. Theocon" by Jacob Heilbrunn, where he wrote that "[T]he neoconservatives believe that America is special because it was founded on an idea—a commitment to the rights of man embodied in the Declaration of Independence—not in ethnic or religious affiliations. The theocons, too, argue that America is rooted in an idea, but they believe that idea is Christianity.   more
1 vote
0 comments
7

Roman Catholic conservatism

Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions and presentations of Catholic teachings which prevailed in the Catholic Church before th... e Second Vatican Council. They are most commonly associated with an attachment to the Mass liturgy in general use in that time period, but their theological and practical concerns are broader in scope.Traditionalist Catholics are distinct from other Catholics who have a broadly "traditional" or conservative convictions   more
1 vote
0 comments
8

Nazism

Nazism, or National Socialism in full, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and state as well as other related far-right groups. It was also promoted in other European countries with large ethnic German com... munities, such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia. Usually characterised as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism, Nazism originally developed from the influences of pan-Germanism, the Völkisch German nationalist movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture in post-First World War Germany, which many Germans felt had been left humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles.German Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and social Darwinism; the Germanic peoples—also referred to as the Nordic race—were considered to be the purest representation of Aryanism, and therefore the master race. Opposed to both capitalism and Marxism, Nazism aimed to overcome social divisions, with all parts of a racially homogeneous society cooperating for national unity and regeneration and to secure territorial enlargement at the expense of supposedly inferior neighbouring nations   more
1 vote
0 comments
9

Pluralism

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles. Political pluralists are not inherently liberals ... or conservatives but advocate a form of political moderation. Nor are political pluralists necessarily advocates of a democratic plurality, but generally agree that this form of government is often best at moderating discrete values.As put by arch-pluralist Isaiah Berlin, "[l]et us have the courage of our admitted ignorance, of our doubts and uncertainties. At least we can try to discover what others […] require, by […] making it possible for ourselves to know men as they truly are, by listening to them carefully and sympathetically, and understanding them and their lives and their needs…." Pluralism thus tries to encourage members of society to accommodate their differences by avoiding extremism and engaging in good faith dialogue. Pluralists also seek the construction or reform of social institutions in order to reflect and balance competing principles   more
1 vote
0 comments
10

Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a political ideology which emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of conservatism and Catholic social teaching. It was originally conceived as a combination of traditional Catholic beliefs and modern democrat... ic ideas, but over time it grew to incorporate a variety of views from different Christian denominations and from different political thinkers. Christian democracy continues to be influential in Europe and Latin America, though in a number of countries its Christian ethos has been challenged by secularization.In practice, Christian democracy is often considered conservative on cultural, social, and moral issues, while advocating a social market economy. In Europe, where Christian democrats defined their views as an alternative to the more leftist ideology of social democracy, Christian democratic parties are moderately conservative and center-right overall, whereas in the very different cultural and political environment of South America they tend to lean to the left in economical issues, and to the extreme right in social issues   more
0 votes
0 comments
11

Green conservatism

Green conservatism is a subset of conservatives who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology. Variants of green conservatism are most common where a pre-existing conservative movement are strongest, especially in the nations of the Anglo... sphere   more
0 votes
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12

Civic conservatism

Civic conservatism is a form of modern conservatism developed by the Conservative intellectual David Willetts. First introduced in his is the idea of focussing on the institutions between the state and individuals as a policy concern. His 1995 pamph... let, "Civic Conservatism" wished to "place the free market in the context of institutions and values which make up civil society". The examples of these institutions were the "network of voluntary organisations", from hospitals to guilds, which had been "weakened if not destroyed by the advance of the State". [D. Willetts, Civic Conservatism, pp 15, 18]Fourteen years after the publication of "Civic Conservatism" Willetts gave the inaugural Oakeshott Memorial Lecture to the London School of Economics in which he made an attempt to explain how theory can be used to help think about how to improve social capital. Willetts attempted to use the works of Ken Binmore to explain how such a civic-centred policy could emerge, and in what conditions it would thrive."Civic conservatism, like free market economics, proceeds from deep-seated individual self-interest towards a stable cooperation   more
0 votes
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13

Post-anarchism

Post-anarchism or postanarchism is an anarchist philosophy that employs post-structuralist and postmodernist approaches. Post-anarchism is not a single coherent theory, but rather refers to the combined works of any number of post-structuralists suc... h as Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Lacan; postmodern feminists such as Judith Butler; and post-Marxists such as Ernesto Laclau, Chantal Mouffe, Jacques Rancière; with those of the classical anarchists, with particular concentration on Emma Goldman, Max Stirner, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Thus, the terminology can vary widely in both approach and outcome   more
0 votes
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14

Toryism

A Tory holds a political philosophy based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism. In politics, the Tory political faction originated with the Cavalier faction during the English Civil War. This political philosophy is prominent in t... he politics of the United Kingdom, and also appears in parts of the Commonwealth, particularly in Canada. It also had exponents in parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America who opposed American independence during the American Revolutionary War. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase 'God, King and Country.' Tories generally advocate monarchism, are usually of a High Church Anglican religious heritage, and are opposed to the radical liberalism of the Whig faction. Under the Corn Laws a majority of Tories supported protectionist agrarianism with tariffs being imposed abroad at the time for sustainability, self-sufficiency and enhanced wages in rural employment.The Tory political faction originally emerged within the Parliament of England to uphold the legitimist rights of James, Duke of York, to succeed his brother Charles II to the throne   more
0 votes
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15

Fiscal conservatism

Fiscal conservatism is a politicoeconomic philosophy with regard to fiscal policy and the advocating of fiscal responsibility. Fiscal conservatives advocate the avoidance of deficit spending, the reduction of overall government spending and national...  debt, and ensuring balanced budgets. Fiscal conservatives would also support pay-as-you-go financial policies. Free trade, deregulation of the economy, lower taxes, and other conservative policies are also often, but not necessarily, associated with fiscal conservatism   more
0 votes
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16

Leninism

In Marxist philosophy, Leninism is the body of political theory for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party, and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat, as political prelude to the establishment of socialism. Deve... loped by, and named for, the Russian revolutionary and later Soviet premier Vladimir Lenin, Leninism comprises political and socialist economic theories, developed from Marxism, as well as Lenin’s interpretations of Marxist theory for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the agrarian early-20th-century Russian Empire. In February 1917, for five years, Leninism was the Russian application of Marxist economics and political philosophy, effected and realised by the Bolshevik party, the vanguard party who led the fight for the political independence of the working class.Functionally, the Leninist vanguard party provided to the working class the political consciousness, and the revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in Imperial Russia   more
0 votes
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17

Queer anarchism

Queer anarchism is an anarchist school of thought which advocates anarchism and social revolution as a means of gay liberation and abolition of homophobia, lesbophobia, biphobia, transphobia, heteronormativity, heterosexism, patriarchy, and the gend... er binary. LGBT anarchists who campaigned for LGBT rights both outside and inside the anarchist and LGBT movements include John Henry Mackay, Adolf Brand, and Daniel Guerin. Individualist anarchist Adolf Brand published Der Eigene which was the first publication dedicated to gay issues in the world, published from 1896 to 1932 in Berlin   more
0 votes
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18

Right-libertarianism

Right-libertarianism refers to those libertarian political philosophies that advocate both self-ownership and the unequal appropriation of natural resources, leading to strong support of private property rights and free-market capitalism. This posit... ion is contrasted with that of left-libertarianism, which maintains that natural resources belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Right-libertarianism includes anarcho-capitalism and laissez-faire, minarchist liberalism   more
0 votes
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19

Revolutionary socialism

The term revolutionary socialism refers to socialist tendencies that subscribe to the doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to effect structural changes to society. More specifically, it is the view that revolution is a necessary pre... condition for a transition from capitalism to socialism. Revolution is not necessarily defined as a violent insurrection; it is defined as seizure of political power by mass movements of the working class so that the state is directly controlled by the working class as opposed to the capitalist class and its interests. Revolutionary socialists believe such a state of affairs is a precondition for establishing socialism.Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define "revolution" differently from one another. These include movements based on Orthodox Marxist theory, such as Luxemburgism, Impossibilism and DeLeonism; as well as movements based on Leninism and the theory of Vanguardist-led revolution, such as Marxism-Leninism, Trotskyism and Maoism. Revolutionary socialism also includes non-Marxist movements like anarchism, revolutionary syndicalism and some forms of democratic socialism   more
0 votes
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20

Revisionism

Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises. The term is most often used by those Marxists who believe that suc... h revisions are unwarranted and represent a "watering down" or abandonment of Marxism. As such, revisionism often carries pejorative connotations. Those identified as "revisionists" have criticized "orthodox" Marxism for having disregarded Marx's view of the necessity of evolution of capitalism to achieve socialism by replacing it with an "either/or" dynamic between capitalism and socialism; for disregarding Marx's emphasis on the role of parliamentary democracy in achieving socialism; as well as criticizing Karl Kautsky for his idea of state socialism   more
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21

Agrarianism

Agrarianism has two common meanings. The first meaning refers to a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of...  life that can shape the ideal social values. It stresses the superiority of a simpler rural life as opposed to the complexity of city life, with its banks and factories.The American Thomas Jefferson was a representative agrarian who built Jeffersonian Democracy around the notion that farmers are “the most valuable citizens” and the truest republicans.The philosophical roots of agrarianism include European and Chinese philosophers. The Chinese School of Agrarianism was a philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. In societies influenced by Confucianism, the farmer was considered an esteemed productive member of society, whereas merchants who made money were looked down upon. This influenced European intellectuals like François Quesnay, an avid Confucianist and advocate of China's agrarian policies, forming the French agrarian philosophy of Physiocracy   more
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22

Stateless communism

The communist society is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces in the theory of Marxism, and is the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism. A communist society...  is based upon common ownership of the means of production with free access to the articles of consumption and is classless and stateless, implying the end of economic exploitation. Karl Marx referred to this stage of development as upper-stage communism.Communism is a specific stage of socioeconomic development that emerges from technological advances in the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely-associated individuals.The term "communist society" should be distinguished from "communist state", the latter referring to a state ruled by a party which professes a Marxist-Leninist variation of communist ideology   more
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23

Anti-Revisionism

Historically, in the Communist lexicon, the term "anti-revisionism" has been used to describe opposition to attempts to revise, modify or abandon the fundamentals of revolutionary theory and practice in a manner that was perceived to represent conce... ssions to Communism's adversaries.Because different political trends trace the historical roots of revisionism to different eras and leaders, there is significant disagreement today as to what constitutes anti-revisionism. Therefore modern groups which describe themselves as anti-revisionist fall into several categories. They universally tend to oppose Trotskyism; however, some uphold the works of Stalin and Mao; some the works of Stalin while rejecting Mao; and some reject both Stalin and Mao, tracing their ideological roots back to Marx and Lenin. In addition, other groups uphold various less-well-known historical leaders, such as Enver Hoxha.Historically, anti-revisionists presented a critique of the official Communist Parties "from the left" for having abandoned orthodox Marxism-Leninism, and for being insufficiently revolutionary   more
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24

Platformism

Platformism is a tendency within the anarchist movement. It stresses the need for tightly organized anarchist organizations, that are able to influence working class and peasant movements."Platformist" groups reject the model of Leninist vanguardism... . They aim, instead, to "make anarchist ideas the leading ideas within the class struggle". The four main principles by which an anarchist organisation should operate, according to Platformists, are ideological unity, tactical unity, collective responsibility, and federalism.In general, platformist groups aim to win the widest possible influence for anarchist ideas and methods in the working class and peasantry—like especifismo groups, platformists orient towards "ordinary" people, rather than to the extreme left milieu. This usually entailing a willingness to work in single-issue campaigns, trade unionism and community groups, and to fight for immediate reforms while linking this to a project of building popular consciousness and organisation   more
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25

Reformist socialism

Reformism is the assumption that gradual changes through and within existing institutions can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic system and political structures. This hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionar... y socialism, which contends that revolution is necessary for fundamental structural changes to occur.Reformism is to be distinguished from pragmatic reforms - reformism is the assumption that an accumulation of reforms can lead to the emergence of an entirely different economic system and form of society than present-day capitalism   more
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26

Libertarian socialism

Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies within the socialist movement that reject the view of socialism as state ownership or command of the means of production within a more general criticism of the state form itself as well as o... f wage labour relationships within the workplace. Instead it emphasizes workers' self management of the workplace and decentralized structures of political government asserting that a society based on freedom and equality can be achieved through abolishing authoritarian institutions that control certain means of production and subordinate the majority to an owning class or political and economic elite. Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy and federal or confederal associations such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, trade unions, and workers' councils. All of this is generally done within a general call for libertarian and voluntary human relationships through the identification, criticism, and practical dismantling of illegitimate authority in all aspects of life   more
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27

Guild socialism

Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public". It originated in the United Kingdom and was at its most influential ... in the first quarter of the 20th century. It was strongly associated with G. D. H. Cole and influenced by the ideas of William Morris   more
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28

Sankarism

Sankarism (also written Sankaraism) is a term sometimes applied to denote a left-wing ideological trend within the political milieu of Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in West Africa, as well as the policies of the military regime led by Captain T... homas Sankara. Sankara came to power in what was then the Republic of Upper Volta in a 1983 military coup, and ruled until his assassination in a coup orchestrated by Blaise Compaoré in 1987. There is a strong political dissonance between the movements which ascribe to Sankara's political legacy and ideals, a fact which the Burkinabé opposition politician Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara – no relation – described in 2001 as being "due to a lack of definition of the concept."[2] The Sankarists range from communists and more moderate socialists to social democrats and populists   more
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29

Corporatism

Corporatism is the socio-political organization of a society by major interest groups, or corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labour, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of common interests. Corporatis... m is theoretically based upon the interpretation of a community as an organic body. The term corporatism is based on the Latin root word "corpus" meaning "body".In 1881, Pope Leo XIII commissioned theologians and social thinkers to study corporatism and provide a definition for it. In 1884 in Freiburg, the commission declared that corporatism was a "system of social organization that has at its base the grouping of men according to the community of their natural interests and social functions, and as true and proper organs of the state they direct and coordinate labor and capital in matters of common interest".Corporatism is related to the sociological concept of structural functionalism. Corporate social interaction is common within kinship groups such as families, clans and ethnicities. Aside from humans, certain animal species are known to exhibit strong corporate social organization, such as penguins   more
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30

Anarchism (general)

Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism ... holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system.As a subtle and anti-dogmatic philosophy, anarchism draws on many currents of thought and strategy. Anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular world view, instead fluxing and flowing as a philosophy. There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are mutually exclusive. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications   more
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31

Anarchism without adjectives

Anarchism without adjectives, in the words of historian George Richard Esenwein, "referred to an unhyphenated form of anarchism, that is, a doctrine without any qualifying labels such as communist, collectivist, mutualist, or individualist. For othe... rs, ... [it] was simply understood as an attitude that tolerated the coexistence of different anarchist schools." In the 1920s synthesis anarchism emerged as a form of anarchist organizations based on anarchism-without-adjectives principles   more
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32

Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. Individualist an... archism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict. Thereafter, it expanded through Europe and the United States. Benjamin R. Tucker, a famous 19th-century individualist anarchist, held that "if the individual has the right to govern himself, all external government is tyranny.   more
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33

Religious anarchism

Anarchists have traditionally been skeptical of or vehemently opposed to organized religion. Nevertheless some anarchists have provided religious interpretations and approaches to anarchism, including the idea that glorification of the state is a fo... rm of sinful idolatry   more
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34

Social anarchism

Social anarchism is generally considered to be the branch of anarchism which sees individual freedom as being dependent upon mutual aid. Social anarchist thought generally emphasizes community and social equality.Libertarian socialists believe in co... nverting present-day private property into the commons or public goods, while retaining respect for personal property. Social anarchism is used to specifically describe tendencies within anarchism that have an emphasis on the communitarian and cooperative aspects of anarchist theory and practice. Social anarchism is generally considered an umbrella term that includes anarcho-collectivism, anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, and social ecology.Social anarchism is often used as a term interchangeably with libertarian socialism, left-libertarianism, or left-anarchism. The term emerged in the late 19th century as a distinction from individualist anarchism   more
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35

Anarchist communism

Anarchist communism is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wages and private property, and in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy, and a horizontal network of voluntary ass... ociations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need".Some forms of anarchist communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are strongly influenced by egoism and radical individualism, believing anarcho-communism is the best social system for the realization of individual freedom. Some anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society.Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution but was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International. The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections   more
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36

Autarchism

Autarchism is a political philosophy that upholds the principle of individual liberty, rejects compulsory government, and supports the elimination of government in favor of ruling oneself and no other. Advocates of the philosophy are autarchists, wh... ile the state in which everyone rules themselves and no one else is called autarchy   more
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37

Autonomism

Autonomism or Autonomist Marxism is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories As a theoretical system, it first emerged in Italy in the 1960s from workerist communism. Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendenc... ies became significant after influence from the Situationists, the failure of Italian far-left movements in the 1970s, and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri, who had contributed to the 1969 founding of Potere Operaio, as well as Mario Tronti, Paolo Virno, Franco Berardi "Bifo", etc.Georgy Katsiaficas summarizes the forms of autonomous movements saying that "In contrast to the centralized decisions and hierarchical authority structures of modern institutions, autonomous social movements involve people directly in decisions affecting their everyday lives. They seek to expand democracy and to help individuals break free of political structures and behavior patterns imposed from the outside.   more
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38

Crypto-anarchism

Crypto-anarchism is a cyber-spatial realization of anarchism. Crypto-anarchists employ cryptographic software to evade prosecution and harassment while sending and receiving information over computer networks, in an effort to protect their privacy a... nd political freedom.Described by Vernor Vinge, crypto-anarchy is more specifically anarcho-capitalist, employing cryptography to enable individuals to make consensual economic arrangements and to transcend national boundaries.By using cryptographic software, the association between the identity of a certain user or organization and the pseudonym they use is made difficult to find, unless the user reveals the association. It is difficult to say which country's laws will be ignored, as even the location of a certain participant is unknown. However, participants may in theory voluntarily create new laws using smart contracts or, if the user is pseudonymous, depend on online reputation   more
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39

Indigenism

Indigenism can refer to several different ideologies associated with indigenous peoples, is used differently by a various scholars and activists, and can be used purely descriptively or carry political connotations.
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40

Infoanarchism

Infoanarchism is an umbrella term for various groups of people who are opposed to forms of intellectual property, such as copyright and patents, and censorship in general. The term was coined in a TIME Magazine article called "The Infoanarchist" in ... July 2000. The article was about Ian Clarke, known as the original designer and lead developer of Freenet. The anti-copyright movement includes a wide range of groups and views. Infoanarchists have emerged as part of the broader copyright social conflict and copyright debate. Infoanarchists have mixed views on the right to individual privacy, with some supporting its active enforcement and others wishing to push the responsibility to the citizen.Infoanarchists may encourage and practice the use of anonymous networks, like Freenet, Entropy, Tor or I2P, to protect against legal attacks, as they make it difficult for observers, or any middleman, to determine what traffic is going across the network. They can be used by whistleblowers, political dissidents, or for unrestricted copying   more
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41

Insurrectionary anarchism

Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice, and tendency within the anarchist movement which emphasizes insurrection within anarchist practice. It is critical of formal organizations such as labor unions and federations that are b... ased on a political programme and periodic congresses. Instead, insurrectionary anarchists advocate informal organization and small affinity group based organization. Insurrectionary anarchists put value in attack, permanent class conflict, and a refusal to negotiate or compromise with class enemies.Contemporary insurrectionary anarchism inherits the views and tactics of anti-organizational anarcho-communism and illegalism   more
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42

Makhnovism

Makhnovism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Ukrainian anarchist revolutionary leader Nestor Makhno, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Makhno's work. Makhnovism in Makhno's own lifetime was anar... chist, and opposed the state and political parties, as well as bureaucracy, and favoured highly decentralized communes run by peasants and workers. Makhnovism builds upon and elaborates the ideas of Peter Kropotkin, and serves as the philosophical basis for anarchist communism. It is also the philosophical basis for Makhno's contribution to platformism.In early 1918, the new Bolshevik government in Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk making peace with the Central Powers, but ceding large amounts of territory to them, including Ukraine. Partisan units were formed that waged guerrilla war against the Germans and Austrians. Nestor Makhno was one of the main organizers of these partisan groups, who united into the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, also called the Black Army and "Makhnovists" or "Makhnovshchina". The RPAU also battled against the Whites, the Reds and anti-semitic pogromists   more
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43

National-Anarchism

National-Anarchism is a radical, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist, anti-statist, right-wing political and cultural ideology which emphasizes ethnic tribalism. National-Anarchists seek to establish autonomous villages for neo-völkisch communities and ot... her forms of new tribes, which have seceded from the state's economy and are no-go areas for unwelcomed groups and state authorities.The term National Anarchism dates back as far as the 1920s. However, it has been primarily redefined and popularized since the 1990s by British author Troy Southgate to promote a synthesis of ideas from the Conservative Revolutionary movement, Traditionalist School, Third Positionism, Nouvelle Droite, and various anarchist schools of thought. National-Anarchists therefore argue they hold a syncretic political or metapolitical stance that is "beyond left and right" because the conventional left–right political spectrum is obsolete and should be replaced with a centralist–decentralist paradigm.The few scholars who have studied National-Anarchism counter that it represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension   more
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44

Panarchism

Panarchism is a political philosophy emphasizing each individual's right to freely join and leave the jurisdiction of any governments they choose, without being forced to move from their current locale. The word "panarchy" was invented and the conce... pt proposed by a Belgian political economist, Paul Émile de Puydt, in an article called "Panarchy" published in 1860. The word "panarchy" has since taken on additional, separate meanings, with the word "panarchism" referring to the original definition by de Puydt.De Puydt, a proponent of laissez-faire economics, wrote that "governmental competition" would allow "as many regularly competing governments as have ever been conceived and will ever be invented" to exist simultaneously and detailed how such a system would be implemented. As David M. Hart writes: "Governments would become political churches, only having jurisdiction over their congregations who had elected to become members."Panarchism has been embraced by some libertarians and socialists, including some of those promoting secession from existing states and those advocating creation of new micronations   more
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45

Communitarianism

Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual man and the community. Although the community might be a family unit, communitarianism usually is understood, in the wider, philosophical sense, as a collection o... f interactions, among a community of people in a given place, or among a community who share an interest or who share a history. Communitarian philosophy is derived from the assumption that a person's individuality is the product of community relationships, rather than a product derived only from personal traits   more
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46

Progressivism

Progressivism is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition. Progressivism became highly significant...  during the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, out of the belief that Europe was demonstrating that societies could progress in civility from barbaric conditions to civilization through strengthening the basis of empirical knowledge as the foundation of society. Figures of the Enlightenment believed that progress had universal application to all societies and that these ideas would spread across the world from Europe. Sociologist Robert Nisbet finds that "No single idea has been more important than ... The Idea of Progress in Western civilization for three thousand years" and defines five "crucial premises" of the Idea of Progress as being: value of the past, nobility of Western civilization, worth of economic/technological growth, faith in reason and scientific/scholarly knowledge obtained through reason, intrinsic importance and worth of life on earth   more
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47

LGBT social movements

LGBT is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the term is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which itself started replacing the term gay when in reference to the LGBT community beginning in ... the mid-to-late 1980s, as many felt the term gay community did not accurately represent all those to whom it referred. The initialism has become mainstream as a self-designation and has been adopted by the majority of sexuality and gender identity-based community centers and media in the United States and some other English-speaking countries. It is also used in some other countries in whose languages the initialism is meaningful, such as France and Argentina.The initialism LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures and is sometimes used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer and/or are questioning their sexual identity as LGBTQ, recorded since 1996   more
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48

Feminism (general)

Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and e... mployment. A feminist advocates or supports the rights and equality of women.Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues such as the social construction of sex and gender. Some of the earlier forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle-class, educated perspectives. This led to the creation of ethnically specific or multiculturalist forms of feminism.Feminist activists campaign for women's rights – such as in contract law, property, and voting – while also promoting bodily integrity, autonomy, and reproductive rights for women   more
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49

Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. Influenced by national syndicalism, fascism originated in Italy during World War I, combining more typically right-wing positions with eleme... nts of left-wing politics, in opposition to liberalism, Marxism, and traditional conservatism. Although fascism is often placed on the far-right on the traditional left–right spectrum, a number of academics have said that the description is inadequate.Fascists sought to unify their nation through an authoritarian state that promoted the mass mobilization of the national community and were characterized by having leadership that initiated a revolutionary political movement aiming to reorganize the nation along principles according to fascist ideology. Fascist movements shared certain common features, including the veneration of the state, a devotion to a strong leader, and an emphasis on ultranationalism and militarism. Fascism views political violence, war, and imperialism as a means to achieve national rejuvenation, and it asserts that stronger nations have the right to expand their territory by displacing weaker nations   more
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50

Agorism

Agorism is a libertarian social philosophy that advocates creating a society in which all relations between people are voluntary exchanges by means of counter-economics, thus engaging in a manner with aspects of peaceful revolution. It was first pro... posed by libertarian philosopher Samuel Edward Konkin III in 1975, with contributions partly by J. Neil Schulman   more
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51

Utopian socialism

Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen. Utopian socialism is often described as the presentation of visions and ... outlines for imaginary or futuristic ideal societies, with positive ideals being the main reason for moving society in such a direction. Later socialists and critics of utopian socialism viewed "utopian socialism" as not being grounded in actual material conditions of existing society, and in some cases, as reactionary. These visions of ideal societies competed with Marxist-inspired revolutionary social democratic movements.The term is most often applied to those socialists who lived in the first quarter of the 19th century who were ascribed the label "utopian" by later socialists as a pejorative in order to imply naiveté and to dismiss their ideas as fanciful and unrealistic. A similar school of thought that emerged in the early 20th century is ethical socialism, which makes the case for socialism on moral grounds   more
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52

Socialism

Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system. "Social ow... nership" may refer to cooperative enterprises, common ownership, state ownership, citizen ownership of equity, or any combination of these. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them. They differ in the type of social ownership they advocate, the degree to which they rely on markets or planning, how management is to be organised within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism.A socialist economic system is based on the organisational precept of production for use, meaning the production of goods and services to directly satisfy economic demand and human needs where objects are valued based on their use-value or utility, as opposed to being structured upon the accumulation of capital and production for profit   more
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53

Libertarianism

Libertarianism is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal objective. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association and the primacy of individual judgment.Liber... tarians generally share a skepticism of authority; however, they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling to restrict or even to wholly dissolve pervasive social institutions. Rather than embodying a singular, rigid systematic theory or ideology, libertarianism has been applied as an umbrella term to a wide range of sometimes discordant political ideas through modern history.Although some present-day libertarians advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights, such as in land, infrastructure and natural resources, others, notably libertarian socialists, seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production in favor of their common or cooperative ownership and management   more
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54

Workerism

Workerism is a name given to different trends in left-wing political discourse, especially anarchism and Marxism. In one sense, it describes a political position concerning the political importance and centrality of the working class. Because this w... as of particular significance in the Italian left, it is often known by its Italian translation, Operaismo. In another sense, workerism refers to the glorification of the culture of the working class, independent of their historical role   more
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55

Techno-progressivism

Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, tech-progressivism or techprogressivism is a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social change. Techno-progressives argue that technological developments can be profound... ly empowering and emancipatory when they are regulated by legitimate democratic and accountable authorities to ensure that their costs, risks and benefits are all fairly shared by the actual stakeholders to those developments   more
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56

Marxism

Marxism is a worldview and method of societal analysis that focuses on class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxist methodology uses...  economic and sociopolitical inquiry and applies that to the critique and analysis of the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change.In the mid-to-late 19th century, the intellectual tenets of Marxism were inspired by two German philosophers: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist analyses and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements. Marxism encompasses an economic theory, a sociological theory, a philosophical method, and a revolutionary view of social change.There is no single definitive Marxist theory; Marxist analysis has been applied to diverse subjects and has been misconceived and modified during the course of its development, resulting in numerous and sometimes contradictory theories that fall under the rubric of Marxism or Marxian analysis   more
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57

Black conservatism

Black conservatism is a political and social movement rooted in communities of African descent that aligns largely with the conservative movement around the world. It often emphasizes patriotism, independence and self-sufficiency, free enterprise, a... nd strong cultural conservatism within the context of the Black church. In the United States it is often, but not exclusively, associated with the Republican Party   more
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58

Monarchism

Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent from any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition t... o monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as republicanism.Depending on the county, a monarchist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed   more
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59

Reactionary

A reactionary is a person who holds political viewpoints that favor a return to a previous state in a society. The word can also be an adjective describing such viewpoints or policies. Reactionaries are considered to be one end of a political spectr... um whose opposite pole is progressivism/radicalism, though reactionary ideologies may be themselves radical. While it has not been generally considered positive to be regarded as a reactionary, it has been adopted as a self-description by some, such as Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Gerald Warner of Craigenmaddie, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, and John Lukacs   more
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60

Carlism

Carlism is a traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne. This line descended from Don Carlos, Count of Molina, and was founded due to dispute ov... er the succession laws and widespread dissatisfaction with the Alfonsine line of the House of Bourbon. The movement was at its strongest in the 1830s but had a revival following Spain's defeat in the Spanish-American War in 1898, when Spain lost its last remaining significant overseas territories of Cuba, Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico to the United States.An exceptionally long-lived movement, Carlism was a significant force in Spanish politics from 1833 until the end of the Francoist regime in 1975. In this capacity, it was the cause of several major wars during the 19th century, and an important factor in the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s   more
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61

Environmentalism (general)

Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of n... on-human elements. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries and is a key tactic of greenwashing   more
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62

Nationalism (general)

Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation. Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related construct of patriotism, which involves th... e social conditioning and personal behaviors that support a state's decisions and actions.From a political or sociological perspective, there are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism. One is the primordialist perspective that describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary tendency of humans to organize into distinct groupings based on an affinity of birth. The other is the modernist perspective that describes nationalism as a recent phenomenon that requires the structural conditions of modern society in order to exist.An alternative perspective to both of these lineages comes out of Engaged theory, and argues that while the form of nationalism is modern, the content and subjective reach of nationalism depends upon 'primordial' sentiments.There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism   more
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63

Religious socialism

Religious socialism is any form of socialism based on religious values. Members of several major religions have found that their beliefs about human society fit with socialist principles and ideas. As a result, religious socialist movements have dev... eloped within these religions. Such movements include:Buddhist socialismChristian socialismJewish socialismIslamic socialis   more
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64

Social democracy

Social democracy is a political ideology that officially has as its goal the establishment of democratic socialism through reformist and gradualist methods. Alternatively, social democracy is defined as a policy regime involving a universal welfare ... state and collective bargaining schemes within the framework of a capitalist economy. It is often used in this manner to refer to the social models and economic policies prominent in Western and Northern Europe during the later half of the 20th century.Following the split between reformists and revolutionary socialists in the Second International, Social democrats have advocated for a peaceful and evolutionary transition of the economy to socialism through progressive social reform of capitalism. Social democracy asserts that the only acceptable constitutional form of government is representative democracy under the rule of law. It promotes extending democratic decision-making beyond political democracy to include economic democracy to guarantee employees and other economic stakeholders sufficient rights of co-determination   more
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65

Post-left anarchy

Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchism's relationship to traditional leftism. Some post-leftists seek to escape the confines of ideology in general also presenting a critique of organizations...  and morality. Influenced by the work of Max Stirner and by the Marxist Situationist International, post-left anarchy is marked by a focus on social insurrection and a rejection of leftist social organisation   more
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66

Geolibertarianism

Geolibertarianism is a left-libertarian political movement and ideology that synthesizes libertarianism and geoism.Geolibertarians hold that all natural resources – most importantly land – are common assets to which all individuals have an equal rig... ht to access; therefore, individuals must pay rent to the community if they claim land as their private property. Rent need not be paid for the mere use of land, but only for the right to exclude others from that land, and for the protection of one's title by government.They simultaneously agree with the libertarian position that each individual has an exclusive right to the fruits of his or her labor as their private property, as opposed to this product being owned collectively by society or the community, and that "one's labor, wages, and the products of labor" should not be taxed. Also, with traditional libertarians they advocate "full civil liberties, with no crimes unless there are victims who have been invaded.   more
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67

Individualist feminism

Individualist feminists attempt to change legal systems in order to eliminate class privileges and gender privileges and to ensure that individuals have equal rights, including an equal claim under the law to their own persons and property. Individu... alist feminism encourages women to take full responsibility for their own lives. It also opposes any government interference into the choices adults make with their own bodies because, it contends, such interference creates a coercive hierarchy (such as patriarchy). One central theme of individualist feminism revolves around the Free Love Movement, which indicates that all sexual choices should be made by a woman, rather than by government regulations   more
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68

Producerism

Producerism is an ideology which holds that those members of society engaged in the production of tangible wealth are of greater benefit to society than, for example, aristocrats who inherit their wealth and station.
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69

Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a type of proposed economic system, a form of socialism, considered a replacement for capitalism. It suggests that industries be organised into confederations or syndicates. It is "a system of economic organization in which industries...  are owned and managed by the workers."Its theory and practice is the advocation of multiple cooperative productive units composed of specialists and representatives of workers in each respective field to negotiate and manage the economy. Syndicalism also refers to the political movement and tactics used to bring about this type of system.For adherents, labour unions and labour training are the potential means of both overcoming economic aristocracy and running society fairly and in the interest of informed and skilled majorities, through union democracy. Industry in a syndicalist system would be run through co-operative confederations and mutual aid. Local syndicates would communicate with other syndicates through the Bourse du Travail which would cooperatively determine distributions of commodities   more
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70

Libertarian Marxism

Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism. Early currents of libertarian Marxism, known as left communism, emerged in opposition to Marxism–Leninism an... d its derivatives, such as Stalinism, Maoism, and Trotskyism. Libertarian Marxism is also critical of reformist positions, such as those held by social democrats. Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the Grundrisse and The Civil War in France; emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state to mediate or aid its liberation. Along with anarchism, Libertarian Marxism is one of the main currents of libertarian socialism.Libertarian Marxism includes such currents as council communism, left communism, Socialisme ou Barbarie Lettrism/Situationism and operaismo/autonomism, and New Left. Libertarian Marxism has often had a strong influence on both post-left and social anarchists   more
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71

Realism

Realism is a school of International Relations theory. Realism, as described by Jonathan Haslam, professor of history of international relations at the University of Cambridge, "is a spectrum of ideas" which revolve around the four central propositi... ons of Political Groupism, Egoism, International anarchy and Power politics. Theories of political realism originated through the works of Thomas Hobbes and Niccolò Machiavelli, emerging as an International Relations based approach in the inter-war years of the 20th century   more
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72

Green liberalism

Green liberalism is a term used to refer to liberals who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology.
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73

Masculism

Masculism is political, cultural, and economic movements which aim to establish and defend political, economic, and social rights and participation in society for men and boys. More generally, it may refer to any movement, theory or opinion which ho... lds a belief in achieving males' equality with females as its core tenet. In this regard, it is the counterpart of feminism, which seeks to achieve the same goals but from a contradistinct viewpoint. Issues of concern to masculists include legal equalities, such as those relating to conscription, child custody, alimony, and equal pay for equal work. Its concepts sometimes coincide with those of the men's rights, fathers' rights, and men's liberation movements. Masculinism strives to achieve these aims by advocating for the rights or needs of men; by the adherence to or promotion of opinions, values, and attitudes, regarded as typical of men; or, alternatively, through an androcentric approach including the exclusion of women   more
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74

Cultural liberalism

Cultural liberalism is a liberal view of society that stresses the freedom of individuals from cultural norms. It is often expressed, in the words of Thoreau as the right to "march to the beat of a different drummer". Cultural liberals believe that ... society should not impose any specific code of behavior, and they see themselves as defending the moral rights of nonconformists to express their own identity however they see fit, as long as they do not harm anyone.The culture wars in politics are disagreements between cultural liberals and cultural conservatives. Cultural liberals are strongly opposed to censorship or any kind of oversight of spoken or written material. They believe that the structure of one's family and the nature of marriage should be left up to individual decision, and they argue that, as long as one does no harm, no lifestyle is inherently better than any other. Because cultural liberalism expresses the social dimension of liberalism, it is often referred to as "social liberalism", but it is not to be confused with the ideology of that name   more
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75

National syndicalism

National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism. National syndicalism developed in France, and then spread to Italy, Spain and Portugal.
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76

Left-wing nationalism

Left-wing nationalism describes a form of nationalism based upon social equality, popular sovereignty, and national self-determination. It has its origins in the Jacobinism of the French Revolution. Left-wing nationalism typically espouses anti-impe... rialism. It stands in contrast to right-wing nationalism, and often rejects racist nationalism and fascism, although minor forms of left-wing nationalism have included intolerance and racial prejudice.Notable left-wing nationalist movements in history have included Mahatma Gandhi's Indian National Congress that promoted independence of India, Labor Zionism which promoted the Jewish national revival, Sinn Féin as the main Irish republican party, the African National Congress of South Africa under Nelson Mandela that successfully ended apartheid.Left-wing nationalism has appeared in authoritarian forms. The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Syria and formerly Iraq has promoted pan-Arabism and state socialism. Josip Broz Tito and Slobodan Milošević as leaders of former Yugoslavia and the League of Communists of Yugoslavia promoted left-wing nationalism   more
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77

Gender equality (general)

Gender equality, also known as sex equality, gender egalitarianism, sexual equality or equality of the genders, refers to the view that men and women should receive equal treatment, and should not be discriminated against based on gender, unless the... re is a sound biological reason for different treatment. This is the objective of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which seeks to create equality in law and in social situations, such as in democratic activities and securing equal pay for equal work   more
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78

Radicalism

The term Radical was used during the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement. Historically, it began in the United Kingdom with political support for a "radical reform" of the electoral system to widen the franchise. Some radicals s... ought republicanism, abolition of titles, redistribution of property and freedom of the press. Initially identifying itself as a far left party opposed to the right-wing parties; the Orléanists, the Legitimists and the Bonapartists in France in the nineteenth century, the Republican, Radical and Radical‐Socialist Party progressively became the most important party of the Third Republic. As historical Radicalism became absorbed in the development of political liberalism, in the later 19th century in both the United Kingdom and continental Europe the term Radical came to denote a progressive liberal ideology   more
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79

National Bolshevism

National Bolshevism is a political movement that combines elements of radical nationalism and Bolshevism. It is often anti-capitalist in tone, and sympathetic towards certain nationalist forms of socialism. Nevertheless, National Bolshevism is separ... ate and distinct from National communism.Today, Russia is considered to be the center of National Bolshevism, and almost all of the National Bolshevik parties and organizations in the world are connected to it. Amongst the leading practitioners and theorists of National Bolshevism are Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who leads the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party in Russia. Influenced heavily by the idea of geopolitics, current Russian National Bolshevik movements propose a merger between Russia, Europe and parts of Asia, in a union to be known as Eurasia.The Franco-Belgian Parti Communautaire National-Européen shares National Bolshevism's desire for the creation of a united Europe, as well as many of the NBP's economic ideas. French political figure Christian Bouchet has also been influenced by the idea   more
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80

Democratic socialism

Democratic socialism is a political ideology advocating a democratic political system alongside a socialist economic system. This may refer to extending principles of democracy in the economy, or may simply refer to trends of socialism that emphasis... e democratic principles as inalienable from their political project.There is no exact definition of democratic socialism. Some forms of democratic socialism overlap with social democracy, while other forms reject social democratic reformism in favor of more revolutionary methods, and overlap with Revolutionary Socialism   more
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(Maximum 900 words)
PetersSmith says2014-11-10T13:40:49.3583256-06:00
Three were submitted.
PetersSmith says2014-11-10T13:46:40.2574112-06:00
I got two, but I don't feel like looking for the last one.
PetersSmith says2014-11-10T13:50:46.8053847-06:00
You ever look at a black and white picture of a person and just go, "Look, a famous thinker." How do you even know I just didn't put random pictures of people for the options? It's probably because i'm so thorough.
blackkid says2014-11-10T13:51:42.7372021-06:00
@_@ So. Many.
PetersSmith says2014-11-10T13:52:11.6384431-06:00
Blackkid: It's almost the exact same number of contemporary religions, isn't that ironic?
debate_power says2014-11-10T15:25:18.7522665-06:00
The heck is communism in second place? Oh yeah, right, indoctrination and greed... I'm voting conservative.
PetersSmith says2014-11-10T16:54:10.1867139-06:00
There's options here a lot more conservative than just the general conservative option.
PetersSmith says2014-11-10T23:14:19.3976974-06:00
No hate for Nazism?
Lukas8 says2014-11-11T14:33:12.0717602-06:00
A corporate Feudal Fascism with theocracy
PetersSmith says2014-11-11T15:37:25.2847594-06:00
Lukas8: That is not an official political ideology.
debate_power says2014-11-12T16:30:04.5978045-06:00
Too much hate for communism...
greatkitteh says2016-01-02T07:45:03.2492887Z
Where are the tumpists?

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